What is Network Time Protocol (NTP) in networking?
/ June 7, 2018

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is very important for modern networks. If the time across network devices is not accurate, this can have a direct impact on network security and network management, just to name two. The key to accurate time in the network is to have your devices receive the correct time from an atomic clock, and then synchronize this correct time across all of the devices. Network Time Protocol ensures this process is automated and secure. This article serves as your introduction to this critical network function. NTP is a protocol designed to synchronize the clocks of computers over a network. Network Time Protocol (NTP) provides a mechanism to synchronize time throughout the network. An NTP device will form an association with NTP devices closer to the time source. NTP devices use a special measurement, called a stratum, to determine how far they are away from the time source. Basic Overview of the NTP NTP stands for Network Time Protocol, and it is an Internet protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers to sometime reference. NTP is an Internet standard protocol originally developed by Professor David L. Mills at the University of Delaware. The NTP system is based…

What is X.25 Protocol in Networking and its Architecture ?
/ May 31, 2018

With the growth in corporate packet switching networks and an increasing awareness of the opportunities for data theft, therefore we focus on the need for data security in X.25 networks. X.25 was a standard suite of protocols used for packet-switched communications over a wide area network—a WAN. A protocol is an agreed-upon set of procedures and rules. Two devices that follow the same protocols can understand each other and exchange data. X.25 Protocol can be a cost-effective means of networking systems in a wide geographical area, compared to traditional dial-up (circuit switched) connections, or remote-bridged local area networks (LANs) connected by leased lines. It provides worldwide interconnection for international corporations. Basic Overview of X.25 Protocol X25 is developed by ITU-T and it is a packet switched wide area network. As shown in the figure below, it is a interface between DTE and DCE for operation on public data network in packet mode. DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment and DCE stands for Data Circuit Terminating Equipment. X25 is an end to end protocol. User usually will not be aware of packets passing between these terminals. X.25 defines procedures and protocols needed to establish, maintain and terminate the connections. It also defines…

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