In cryptographic circles, plaintext is the message we are trying to transmit. The process of encryption converts that plaintext message into ciphertext, and decryption converts the ciphertext back into plaintext. Encryption algorithms are technically classified in two broad categories- Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. In symmetric type of Cryptography, the key that is used for encryption is same as the key used in de...

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Raja Ram Mohan Roy is a great historical figure who put laudable efforts to transform India and dared to defy the age old Hindu traditions. He undertook a lot of social reforms to change the society and worked to uplift the status of women in India. Roy fought against Sati system. He was also a great scholar who translated many books, religious and philosophical work and scriptures into Bengali and also translated Vedic scriptures into English...

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RSA Algorithm is christened after its joint inventors, Ron Rivset, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman who invented it during 1977. This algorithm is the first of its kind that can be used for public key encryption as well as digital signatures. The RSA cryptosystem is the most widely-used public key cryptography algorithm in the world. It can be used to encrypt a message without the need to exchange a secret key separately. The RSA algorithm can b...

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Computer generated images by default render the entire scene in perfect focus. The desire to render the world around us is common to many applications. As part of this ‘virtual world’ it is natural to include representations of humans. A realistic visual approximation of a human requires a polygon mesh of significant complexity, especially as it has to be sufficiently tessellated to allow smooth deformations of the model. Image-based modeling ...

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VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel. The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not s...

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As Internet access becomes increasingly inexpensive and available, it has become a viable replacement for traditional couriers, telephone, and fax, as well as remote dial-up access to a company’s internal computer resources. SSH, the Secure Shell could be a common software based approach to network security. It is a protocol that enables user to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to maneuver ...

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Now a days, the usage of web based applications are increasing and the session vulnerabilities are very common in all web applications. Information security is a vital area of concern for all users, which goes beyond the technical domain. It is likely to affect the entire human race if not properly handled. Security is the degree of conflict to, or defense from harm. It applies to any susceptible and precious asset, such as a person, dwelling,...

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Overview of MD5 Algorithm Hash algorithms are important components in many cryptographic applications and security protocol suites. MD5 which stands for Message Digest algorithm 5 is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The idea behind this algorithm is to take up a random data (text or binary) as an input and generate a fixed size “hash value” as the output. The input data can be of any size or length, but the output “hash value” size i...

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Cluster sampling (also known as one-stage cluster sampling) is a technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. Cluster sampling involves identification of cluster of participants representing the population and their inclusion in the sample group. This is a popular method in conducting marketing researches. The main aim of cluster sampling can be specified as cost reduction...

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Definition of Random Sampling Sampling is based on probability theory –in its broadest sense, if we can choose respondents randomly and appropriately from the larger population, the results from that random sample will be very close to what we would get by interviewing every member of the population. Random sampling is a technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an un...

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What is Post office protocol 3 (POP3)?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 21, 2018

Electronic mail is the core of modern communications. People rely on email to conduct their business and stay in touch with families. The ubiquity of an email availability is one of the strengths of the internet whose phenomenal growth and popularity are also due to the popularity of an email. E-mail system has become the most popular computer based method used to send and receive E-mail messages between the network clients inside or...

What is Object Oriented Database?
Database , Technology & Science / April 20, 2018

Databases fulfill several roles in the process of building computer applications. Like a file system, databases provide the means to store data between invocations of an application (i.e. persistence). Database systems, however, provide additional services not supported by most, if not all, file systems. History of data processing goes through many different changes with different technologies along with the time. In decade there is ...

What is Web Analytics in Big Data Analytics?
Big Data , Technology & Science / April 15, 2018

Today, the web users surf many different websites regularly in the course of their daily lives. The usability and conversion rate of a website reflect the kind of experience the web users have on the website. The success of a website rides on the usability and conversion rate of the website. The higher the usability and conversion rate of the website, the better the website is functioning. Web analytics consists of a series of metric...

Dr B.R. Ambedkar (14th April 1891 – 6th December 1956)
History / April 14, 2018

The life and activities of every great thinker or activist, depend to a great extent on the various problematic conditions under which he/she lives and works and struggles to bring about desired changes. In the case of Ambedkar, this societal relationship is far more evident, as he was born in a community which, for centuries, had been subjected to deprivations, miseries, humiliations, oppression’s and denials in every worthy a...

What is Access Control in Network?

The need for network security is a relatively new requirement. Security incidents are rising at an alarming rate every year. As the complexity of the threats increases, so do the security measures required to protect networks. Information Systems are decomposed in three main portions, hardware, software and communications with the purpose to identify and apply information security industry standards, as mechanisms of protection and p...

What is Virtual Reality in Computer Graphics?

Virtual Reality is a major asset and aspect of our future. It is the key to experiencing, feeling and touching the past, present and the future. It is the medium of creating our own world, our own customized reality. Modeling is used to build structures that serve as proxies for other objects. Virtual reality is more than just interacting with 3D worlds. By offering presence simulation to users as an interface metaphor, it allows ope...

What is Multimedia Database in Computer Graphics?

The exponential growth of the technological advancements has resulted in high-resolution devices, such as digital cameras, scanners, monitors, and printers, which enable the capturing and displaying of multimedia data in high-density storage devices. Furthermore, more and more applications need to live with multimedia data. However, the gap between the characteristics of various media types and the application requirements has create...

What is HIPERLAN in Wireless Network?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 8, 2018

There has been a remarkable growth in the field of wireless communication standards. Wireless networks are becoming popular as they allow users, the ability to remain connected while on the move.  These wireless standards are characterized based on their range, maximum signal rate, number of channels, channel bandwidth, data protection, frequency band, Quality of Service (QoS) and applications. Overview of HiperLan HIPERLAN is a Euro...

What is Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) in Network Security

Cryptographic hash functions cannot be thought of outside mathematics. Cryptographic hash functions are a valuable tool in cryptography. They are applied in many areas of information security to provide protection of the authenticity of messages; data integrity verification which prevents modification of data from going undetected, time stamping and digital signature scheme. The hash functions that are used in various security relate...

Commonwealth Games
Sports / April 6, 2018

History In 1891, John Astley Cooper first wrote about a sporting competition that would bring organized members of the British Empire, but it wasn’t until 1911, at the coronation of King George V, that an ‘Inter-Empire Championships’ was held. This occasion included teams from Australasia, Canada, South Africa and the United Kingdom. They competed in athletics, boxing, wrestling and swimming events. The first official Commonwealth Ga...

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