In cryptographic circles, plaintext is the message we are trying to transmit. The process of encryption converts that plaintext message into ciphertext, and decryption converts the ciphertext back into plaintext. Encryption algorithms are technically classified in two broad categories- Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. In symmetric type of Cryptography, the key that is used for encryption is same as the key used in de...

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Raja Ram Mohan Roy is a great historical figure who put laudable efforts to transform India and dared to defy the age old Hindu traditions. He undertook a lot of social reforms to change the society and worked to uplift the status of women in India. Roy fought against Sati system. He was also a great scholar who translated many books, religious and philosophical work and scriptures into Bengali and also translated Vedic scriptures into English...

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RSA Algorithm is christened after its joint inventors, Ron Rivset, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman who invented it during 1977. This algorithm is the first of its kind that can be used for public key encryption as well as digital signatures. The RSA cryptosystem is the most widely-used public key cryptography algorithm in the world. It can be used to encrypt a message without the need to exchange a secret key separately. The RSA algorithm can b...

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Computer generated images by default render the entire scene in perfect focus. The desire to render the world around us is common to many applications. As part of this ‘virtual world’ it is natural to include representations of humans. A realistic visual approximation of a human requires a polygon mesh of significant complexity, especially as it has to be sufficiently tessellated to allow smooth deformations of the model. Image-based modeling ...

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VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel. The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not s...

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As Internet access becomes increasingly inexpensive and available, it has become a viable replacement for traditional couriers, telephone, and fax, as well as remote dial-up access to a company’s internal computer resources. SSH, the Secure Shell could be a common software based approach to network security. It is a protocol that enables user to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to maneuver ...

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Now a days, the usage of web based applications are increasing and the session vulnerabilities are very common in all web applications. Information security is a vital area of concern for all users, which goes beyond the technical domain. It is likely to affect the entire human race if not properly handled. Security is the degree of conflict to, or defense from harm. It applies to any susceptible and precious asset, such as a person, dwelling,...

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Overview of MD5 Algorithm Hash algorithms are important components in many cryptographic applications and security protocol suites. MD5 which stands for Message Digest algorithm 5 is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The idea behind this algorithm is to take up a random data (text or binary) as an input and generate a fixed size “hash value” as the output. The input data can be of any size or length, but the output “hash value” size i...

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Cluster sampling (also known as one-stage cluster sampling) is a technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. Cluster sampling involves identification of cluster of participants representing the population and their inclusion in the sample group. This is a popular method in conducting marketing researches. The main aim of cluster sampling can be specified as cost reduction...

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Definition of Random Sampling Sampling is based on probability theory –in its broadest sense, if we can choose respondents randomly and appropriately from the larger population, the results from that random sample will be very close to what we would get by interviewing every member of the population. Random sampling is a technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an un...

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Web recommendation system

Web recommendation system: Introduction The term recommendation is used for describing the suggestions of a particular product or service. therefore the web recommendation systems are a essential part of e-commerce applications. The users who search about some kinds of product or services the recommendation systems helps them by suggesting the most appropriate product or services. In most of the cases the web based recommendation sys...

Fuzzy C means

Fuzzy C-means: Overview the fuzzy c-means algorithm is one of the most popular clustering technique in data mining. that technique enable the data objects to be available in more than one cluster at the time. therefore that technique can be used for other clustering technique implementations. that is also a unsupervised technique of data mining. that technique directly input the data samples as input and produces the clusters of data...

K-Means Algorithm with Numerical Explanation

K-means clustering Overview in a number of classical data mining techniques the k-means algorithm is one of the most popular technique of unsupervised learning or clustering. that technique can be used with any kind of mining techniques web mining, text mining or any structured data mining. that algorithm is suitable to used for partitioning of data into K number of clusters. therefore that technique is also known as partition based ...

Classification and prediction in data mining

Classification is a technique of supervised learning in data mining. that technique is applied when the data patterns or samples are having some predefined pattern labels or class labels. the supervised learning algorithms first prepare the data models based on the existing patterns. these existing patterns are known as training samples. additionally the preparation of data models are known as the training of algorithms. after the tr...

Clustering in Data mining

clustering is a technique to prepare the group of similar data objects based on their internal similarity. the data objects are representing the properties or features of an individual pattern of data. these properties or features are used for computing the similarity or differences among the data objects. the data objects which are grouped is termed as the cluster of data. the cluster analysis includes two main components first is k...

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Networking , Technology & Science / August 10, 2017

MANET Overview The new generation network that includes the wireless devices which are able to move freely or independently in random directions and speed with regulation of any authority and connected through the wireless links can be termed as ad-hoc networks. Fast expansion of wireless communication technology and the broad usage of mobile communication tools, wireless ad hoc networks are getting more and more consideration. Nowad...

What is web mining

Overview of web mining Internet is a large source of data and information; the data on web is frequently accessed and changed. Important and knowledgeable information extraction form the World Wide Web is the application of data mining techniques. Figure 1 categories of web mining The technique of exploring the web data using the data mining algorithms is termed as web mining in order to recover the significant patterns over the data...

What is text mining

When the data mining techniques and algorithms are utilized with the unstructured source of digital documents such as text file, web documents or others. that process is known as text mining. In web mining the content mining includes the techniques of text mining for finding text based patterns from web documents. Basically text mining approaches, required much effort to find specific pattern from data. First text mining approach is ...

What is data mining

Data mining is a technique to explore and analyse the data using the computational algorithms. The analysis of data results some similar or dissimilar patterns. That are used for designing and developing different applications such as recognition, decision making and others. Data mining supports various kinds of data modeling such as classification, prediction, association, cluster analysis and others. The mining and their techniques...

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