In most people’s minds, privacy is the goal most strongly associated to cryptography. But message authentication is arguably even more important. Indeed you may or may not care if some particular message you send out stays private, but you almost certainly do want to be sure of the originator of each message that you act on. Message authentication is what buys you that guarantee. The prime necessity in the world of open computing and communica...

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High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol. Its most prominent feature is that it can transmit any types of bit stream transparently. HDLC supports point-to-point link only and does not support point-to-multipoint link. HDLC supports neither IP address negotiation nor authentication. It uses keep-alive messages to check link status. HDLC can only be encapsulated on synchronous link. Currently, this protocol is ap...

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The HDLC protocol is a general purpose protocol which operates at the data link layer of the OSI reference model. The protocol uses the services of a physical layer, and provides either a best effort or reliable communications path between the transmitter and receiver (i.e. with acknowledged data transfer). The type of service provided depends upon the HDLC mode which is used. Basic Overview of HDLC High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit...

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SNMP stands for simple network management protocol. It is a way that servers can share information about their current state, and also a channel through which administer can modify pre-defined values. While the protocol itself is very simple, the structure of programs that implement SNMP can be very complex. SNMP is one of the widely accepted protocols to manage and monitor network elements. Most of the professional–grade network elements come...

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In cryptographic circles, plaintext is the message we are trying to transmit. The process of encryption converts that plaintext message into ciphertext, and decryption converts the ciphertext back into plaintext. Encryption algorithms are technically classified in two broad categories- Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. In symmetric type of Cryptography, the key that is used for encryption is same as the key used in de...

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Raja Ram Mohan Roy is a great historical figure who put laudable efforts to transform India and dared to defy the age old Hindu traditions. He undertook a lot of social reforms to change the society and worked to uplift the status of women in India. Roy fought against Sati system. He was also a great scholar who translated many books, religious and philosophical work and scriptures into Bengali and also translated Vedic scriptures into English...

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RSA Algorithm is christened after its joint inventors, Ron Rivset, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman who invented it during 1977. This algorithm is the first of its kind that can be used for public key encryption as well as digital signatures. The RSA cryptosystem is the most widely-used public key cryptography algorithm in the world. It can be used to encrypt a message without the need to exchange a secret key separately. The RSA algorithm can b...

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Computer generated images by default render the entire scene in perfect focus. The desire to render the world around us is common to many applications. As part of this ‘virtual world’ it is natural to include representations of humans. A realistic visual approximation of a human requires a polygon mesh of significant complexity, especially as it has to be sufficiently tessellated to allow smooth deformations of the model. Image-based modeling ...

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VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel. The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not s...

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As Internet access becomes increasingly inexpensive and available, it has become a viable replacement for traditional couriers, telephone, and fax, as well as remote dial-up access to a company’s internal computer resources. SSH, the Secure Shell could be a common software based approach to network security. It is a protocol that enables user to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to maneuver ...

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Bayesian Classifier

Bayesian classifier: introduction A Bayesian classifier is based on the idea that the role of a (natural) class is to predict the values of features for members of that class. Examples are grouped in classes because they have common values for the features. Such classes are often called natural kinds. In this section, the target feature corresponds to a discrete class, which is not necessarily binary. The idea behind a Bayesian class...

Image Segmentation

Overview The division of an image into meaningful structures, image segmentation, is often an essential step in image analysis, object representation, visualization, and many other image processing tasks. Segmentation partitions an image into distinct regions containing each pixel with similar attributes. To be meaningful and useful for image analysis and interpretation, the regions should strongly relate to depicted objects or featu...

An Overview of Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO): introduction Particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulates the behaviors of bird flocking. Suppose the following scenario: a group of birds are randomly searching food in an area. There is only one piece of food in the area being searched. All the birds do not know where the food is. But they know how far the food is in each iteration. So what’s the best strategy to find the food? The effective ...

GridSim Overview

The GridSim is a Java based discrete event simulation package, supports modeling and simulation of a wide range of heterogeneous resources, such as single or multiprocessors, shared and distributed memory machines such as PCs, workstations, Shared memory Multiprocessors (SMP), and clusters with different capabilities and configurations. It can be used for modeling and simulation of application scheduling on various classes of paralle...

Support Vector Machine (SVM)

In recent years, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been playing a significant role for variants of data mining tasks which is extensively popular and active research area among the researchers. To intend of neural network is to mimic the human ability to acclimatize to varying circumstances and the current environment. The subtle use of Support Vector Machine (SVM) in various data mining applications makes it an obligatory t...

Wireless Sensor Network
Networking , Technology & Science / September 1, 2017

Wireless Sensor Network introduction Efficient design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research in recent years, due to the vast potential of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world. By networking large numbers of tiny sensor nodes, it is possible to obtain data about physical phenomena that was difficult or impossible to obtain in more convent...

Neural Network

Neural Network Basics An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems. ANNs, like people,...

Hidden Markov Model

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a powerful statistical tool for modeling generative sequences that can be characterized by an underlying process generating an observable sequence. A hidden Markov model is a doubly stochastic process, with an underlying stochastic process that is not observable (hence the word hidden), but can be observed through another stochastic process that produces the sequence of obser...

WormHole Attack in MANET
Networking , Technology & Science / August 19, 2017

A wireless ad-hoc network is temporarily set network by wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the place that have no fixed infrastructure and all of the transmission links are established through wireless medium. MANETs are a kind of wireless ad-hoc network. Each node in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction leads to changing its links to other nodes frequently. Each node operates as an end system and also as...

Black-hole Attack in MANET
Networking , Technology & Science / August 17, 2017

Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET) Attack Wireless networks can be basically either infrastructure based networks or infrastructure less networks. The infrastructure based networks uses fixed base stations, which are responsible for coordinating communication between the mobile hosts (nodes). The ad hoc networks falls under the class of infrastructure less networks, where the mobile nodes communicate with each other without any fixed infra...

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