Earth is a common expression for the planet earth in a number of countries and regions, which reflects the interdependence that exists among human beings, other living species and the planet we all inhabit. The Earth and its ecosystems are our home. In order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social, and environmental needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with nature and the Earth. International...

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Electronic mail is the core of modern communications. People rely on email to conduct their business and stay in touch with families. The ubiquity of an email availability is one of the strengths of the internet whose phenomenal growth and popularity are also due to the popularity of an email. E-mail system has become the most popular computer based method used to send and receive E-mail messages between the network clients inside or outside t...

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Databases fulfill several roles in the process of building computer applications. Like a file system, databases provide the means to store data between invocations of an application (i.e. persistence). Database systems, however, provide additional services not supported by most, if not all, file systems. History of data processing goes through many different changes with different technologies along with the time. In decade there is huge incre...

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Today, the web users surf many different websites regularly in the course of their daily lives. The usability and conversion rate of a website reflect the kind of experience the web users have on the website. The success of a website rides on the usability and conversion rate of the website. The higher the usability and conversion rate of the website, the better the website is functioning. Web analytics consists of a series of metrics and tech...

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The life and activities of every great thinker or activist, depend to a great extent on the various problematic conditions under which he/she lives and works and struggles to bring about desired changes. In the case of Ambedkar, this societal relationship is far more evident, as he was born in a community which, for centuries, had been subjected to deprivations, miseries, humiliations, oppression’s and denials in every worthy aspect of h...

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The need for network security is a relatively new requirement. Security incidents are rising at an alarming rate every year. As the complexity of the threats increases, so do the security measures required to protect networks. Information Systems are decomposed in three main portions, hardware, software and communications with the purpose to identify and apply information security industry standards, as mechanisms of protection and prevention,...

Virtual Reality is a major asset and aspect of our future. It is the key to experiencing, feeling and touching the past, present and the future. It is the medium of creating our own world, our own customized reality. Modeling is used to build structures that serve as proxies for other objects. Virtual reality is more than just interacting with 3D worlds. By offering presence simulation to users as an interface metaphor, it allows operators to ...

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The exponential growth of the technological advancements has resulted in high-resolution devices, such as digital cameras, scanners, monitors, and printers, which enable the capturing and displaying of multimedia data in high-density storage devices. Furthermore, more and more applications need to live with multimedia data. However, the gap between the characteristics of various media types and the application requirements has created the need...

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There has been a remarkable growth in the field of wireless communication standards. Wireless networks are becoming popular as they allow users, the ability to remain connected while on the move.  These wireless standards are characterized based on their range, maximum signal rate, number of channels, channel bandwidth, data protection, frequency band, Quality of Service (QoS) and applications. Overview of HiperLan HIPERLAN is a European (ETSI...

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Cryptographic hash functions cannot be thought of outside mathematics. Cryptographic hash functions are a valuable tool in cryptography. They are applied in many areas of information security to provide protection of the authenticity of messages; data integrity verification which prevents modification of data from going undetected, time stamping and digital signature scheme. The hash functions that are used in various security related applicat...

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Decision Trees

Decision Tree:Overview in different kinds of supervised data mining techniques the decision trees are one of the most popular classification and prediction technique. basically the training data samples are organized in form of tree data structure. where the nodes of tree shows the attributes of the data set and edges can be used for demonstrating the values of these attributes. additionally the leaf node of the tree contains the dec...

Web recommendation system

Web recommendation system: Introduction The term recommendation is used for describing the suggestions of a particular product or service. therefore the web recommendation systems are a essential part of e-commerce applications. The users who search about some kinds of product or services the recommendation systems helps them by suggesting the most appropriate product or services. In most of the cases the web based recommendation sys...

Fuzzy C means

Fuzzy C-means: Overview the fuzzy c-means algorithm is one of the most popular clustering technique in data mining. that technique enable the data objects to be available in more than one cluster at the time. therefore that technique can be used for other clustering technique implementations. that is also a unsupervised technique of data mining. that technique directly input the data samples as input and produces the clusters of data...

K-Means Algorithm with Numerical Explanation

K-means clustering Overview in a number of classical data mining techniques the k-means algorithm is one of the most popular technique of unsupervised learning or clustering. that technique can be used with any kind of mining techniques web mining, text mining or any structured data mining. that algorithm is suitable to used for partitioning of data into K number of clusters. therefore that technique is also known as partition based ...

Classification and prediction in data mining

Classification is a technique of supervised learning in data mining. that technique is applied when the data patterns or samples are having some predefined pattern labels or class labels. the supervised learning algorithms first prepare the data models based on the existing patterns. these existing patterns are known as training samples. additionally the preparation of data models are known as the training of algorithms. after the tr...

Clustering in Data mining

clustering is a technique to prepare the group of similar data objects based on their internal similarity. the data objects are representing the properties or features of an individual pattern of data. these properties or features are used for computing the similarity or differences among the data objects. the data objects which are grouped is termed as the cluster of data. the cluster analysis includes two main components first is k...

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Networking , Technology & Science / August 10, 2017

MANET Overview The new generation network that includes the wireless devices which are able to move freely or independently in random directions and speed with regulation of any authority and connected through the wireless links can be termed as ad-hoc networks. Fast expansion of wireless communication technology and the broad usage of mobile communication tools, wireless ad hoc networks are getting more and more consideration. Nowad...

What is web mining

Overview of web mining Internet is a large source of data and information; the data on web is frequently accessed and changed. Important and knowledgeable information extraction form the World Wide Web is the application of data mining techniques. Figure 1 categories of web mining The technique of exploring the web data using the data mining algorithms is termed as web mining in order to recover the significant patterns over the data...

What is text mining

When the data mining techniques and algorithms are utilized with the unstructured source of digital documents such as text file, web documents or others. that process is known as text mining. In web mining the content mining includes the techniques of text mining for finding text based patterns from web documents. Basically text mining approaches, required much effort to find specific pattern from data. First text mining approach is ...

What is data mining

Data mining is a technique to explore and analyse the data using the computational algorithms. The analysis of data results some similar or dissimilar patterns. That are used for designing and developing different applications such as recognition, decision making and others. Data mining supports various kinds of data modeling such as classification, prediction, association, cluster analysis and others. The mining and their techniques...

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