Indian Agriculture

November 7, 2017 Author: virendra
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Enhancement is the basic need of Agriculture field because Enhancement in this field can provide a solution for lot of problems. It helps farmers to increase their production, profit and also improve their level of living. It will also prove fruitful to reduce their cost on crops. This section provide brief understanding about the agriculture which is contribute to make ease of Indian farmer.

Indian Agriculture General





Agriculture is an important part of India’s economy and at present it is among the top two farm producers in the world. This sector provides approximately 52 percent of the total number of jobs available in India and contributes around 18.1 percent to the GDP. Indian agriculture had reached the stage of development and maturity much before the now advanced countries of the world embarked on the path of progress. At that time, there was a proper balance between agriculture and industry balance both flourished hand in hand. This situation continued till the middle of the eighteenth century Agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the Indian economy. Agriculture is described as the backbone of Indian economy mainly because of the three reasons. One, agriculture constitutes large share of country’s national income though the share has declined from 55 percent in early 1950s to about 25 percent in early 2000s. Two, more than 2/3rd of workforce of the country were employed in agricultural sector until 1971. Recent census data for the year 2001 indicates that agriculture workers (cultivators and agricultural laborers) account for 58.4 percent of workforce of India. Three, growth of other sectors and overall economy depends on the performance of agriculture to a considerable extent. Agriculture has also played important role as foreign exchange earner. Because of its backward and forward linkages with other economic sectors, changes in agricultural performance have a multiplier effect on the entire economy. Its performance, therefore, is crucial in the task of reduction and eventual elimination of poverty in India.




Indian agriculture has long, old and beyond memory history which begins the Indus valley civilization. One of the most old water regulating structure in the world is Grand Anicut dam on river Kaveri (1st-2nd Century CE) [2]. Agriculture plays a vital role in the Indian economy. Over 70 per cent of the rural households depend on agriculture. Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes about 17% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60% of the population. Indian agriculture has registered impressive growth over last few decades. The food grain production has increased from 51 million tons (MT) in 1950-51 to 250MT during 2011-12 highest ever since independence.

India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices and spice products. India’s fruit production has grown faster than vegetables, making it the second largest fruit producer in the world. India’s horticulture output is estimated to be 287.3 million tons (MT) in 2016-17 after the first advance estimate. It ranks third in farm and agriculture outputs. Agricultural export constitutes 10 per cent of the country’s exports and is the fourth-largest exported principal commodity. The agro industry in India is divided into several sub segments such as canned, dairy, processed, frozen food to fisheries, meat, poultry, and food grains.

Indian Agriculture

Figure 1: Indian Agriculture

After Independence, India followed an agricultural development strategy that focused on self-sufficiency in staple foods like wheat and rice. Agrarian reforms were undertaken in the form of consolidation of holdings, abolition of landlordism etc. However, for most part of the country, these reforms have remained just in paper thus not ensuring equitable distribution of land. Finance and credit was also extended to the farmers from the banks to diminish the control of informal moneylenders with high interest burden. Besides this, expansion of irrigated areas was undertaken and high yielding varieties were introduced leading to increase in agricultural production. Another policy goal vis a vis agriculture was to ensure remunerative prices to farmers (through Minimum Support Prices for key commodities), and maintenance of stable prices for consumers (through food subsidies). Input subsidies were also provided for producers (including producers like fertilizer companies) to keep the costs of agriculture low.



Farming

Farming is the act or process of working the ground, planting seeds, and growing edible plants. You can also describe raising animals for milk or meat as farming. Farming is a great way to describe the lifestyle and work of people whose jobs are in the agriculture industry. People often have a romantic idea of what farming is like — roosters crowing, farmers driving tractors and milking goats — although farming can be very hard work, dependent on food prices and weather. The noun farm originally meant “a lease on farm land,” and it comes from the Medieval Latin firma, “fixed payment. Agriculture started thousands of years ago, but no one knows for sure how old it is. The development of farming gave rise to the Neolithic Revolution whereby people gave up nomadic hunting and became settlers in what became cities.

Importance of farming

Farming was not associated with commercialization and sparked images of rows of vegetables. Today, agriculture occurs on a much larger scale. Agriculture businesses grow food to distribute in mass quantities and at all points throughout the year – regardless of the food’s peak season. Additionally, agriculture now includes dairy and livestock among other characteristics. Agriculture at the most basic level is incredibly important for a number of reasons :

Raw Materials

Many raw materials depend directly on agriculture. Leading industries that use materials like cotton, sugar, tobacco, and oils are dependent on agriculture.

Jobs

Agriculture not only creates jobs for the farmers, it also provides jobs for the truck drivers who transport the produce to the store, grocery store employees who sell the goods, restaurant employees who receive the raw food, and many others.

Health Benefits

Like mom says, “eat your vegetables!” Multivitamins and supplements cannot compare to the vitamins and minerals that fresh fruits and vegetables provide for the body.

Foreign Exchange

Bananas, tea, coffee, tobacco, and spices contribute to and encourage a significant amount of foreign trade.

Connection to the Land

In many parts of the world, people depended on rain, rich soil, and the environment around them; farmers have a deep understanding and connection to nature.

References

[1] Chand Ramesh (2004), “Agriculture Growth during the Reforms and Liberalization: Issues and Concerns, Policy Brief 2O”, National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi.

[2] “Chapter – History of Indian Agriculture”, available online at: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/92452/11/11_chapter2.pdf

[3] “Agriculture”, available online at: https://india.gov.in/topics/agriculture

[4] “Institute of Entrepreneurship Development”, available online at: https://ied.eu/the-importance-of-agriculture-for-the-economy-and-the-specific-features-of-mediterranean-agriculture/

 

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