Dynamic Energy Management for Smart Grid

January 27, 2018

Against a backdrop of increasing energy costs and tightening constraints on resource availability, the call for greater optimization and highly efficient induction heating has grown louder and louder. Innovative and intelligent strategies are now available to increase energy efficiency and production flexibility while simultaneously streamlining operations and reducing spare part costs. Together with laborsaving automation, improved energy efficiency offers the most meaningful productivity gains.

Overview of Energy Management

Dynamic Energy Management is an innovative approach to managing load at the demand-side. It incorporates the conventional energy use management principles represented in demand-side management, demand response, and distributed energy resource programs and merges them in an integrated framework that simultaneously addresses permanent energy savings, permanent demand reductions, and temporary peak load reductions. This is accomplished through a system comprising smart end-use devices and distributed energy resources with highly advanced controls and communications capabilities that enable dynamic management of the system as a whole. The components build upon each other and interact with one another to contribute to an infrastructure that is dynamic, fully-integrated, highly energy efficient, automated, and capable of learning. These components work in unison to optimize operation of the integrated system based on consumer requirements, utility constraints, available incentives, and other variables such as weather and building tenure. Dynamic Energy Management is not simply a repackaging of energy efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation practices.

Components of Dynamic Energy Management

Dynamic energy management consists of four main components:

• Smart energy efficient end-use devices;
• Smart distributed energy resources;
• Advanced whole-building control systems; and
• Integrated communications architecture.

Figure 1: Component of Dynamic Energy Management

Figure 1 illustrates how these components act as building blocks of the dynamic energy management concept. The components build upon each other and interact with one another to contribute to an infrastructure that is dynamic, fully-integrated, highly energy-efficient, automated, and capable of learning. These components work in unison to optimize operation of the integrated system based on consumer requirements, utility constraints, available incentives, and other variables such as weather and building occupancy.

Characteristics

Here we list the predominant characteristics of each of these four components

Smart Energy Efficient End-Use Devices:

• Appliances, lighting, space conditioning, and industrial process equipment with the highest energy efficiencies technically and economically feasible.
• Thermal energy storage systems that allow for load shaping
• Intelligent end-use devices equipped with embedded features allowing for two-way communications and automated control
• Devices that represent an evolution from static devices to dynamic devices with advancements in distributed intelligence; one example is a high efficiency, internet protocol (IP) addressable appliance that can be controlled by external signals from the utility, end-user, or other authorized entity

Smart Distributed Energy Resources:

• Onsite generation devices such as photovoltaics, diesel engines, micro-turbines, and fuel cells that provide power alone or in conjunction with the grid
• Onsite electric energy storage devices such as batteries and fly wheels
• Devices that are dynamically controlled to supply base load, peak shaving, temporary demand reductions, or power quality
• Devices that are dynamically controlled such that excess power is sold back to the grid

Advanced Whole-Building Control Systems:

• Control systems that optimize the performance of end-use devices and distributed energy resources based on operational requirements, user preferences, and external signals from the utility, end-user, or other authorized entity
• Controls that ensure end-use devices only operate as needed; examples include automatic dimming of lights when daylighting conditions allow or reducing outdoor ventilation during periods of low occupancy
• Controls that allow for two-way communications; for example, they can send data (such as carbon dioxide concentration in a particular room) to an external source and they can accept commands from an external source (such as management of space conditioning system operation based on forecasted outside air temperature)
• Local, individual controls that are mutually compatible with a whole-building control system; for example, security, lighting, space conditioning, appliances, distributed energy resources, etc. can all be controlled by a central unit
• Controls that have the ability to learn from past experience and apply that knowledge to future events

Integrated Communications Architecture:

• Allow automated control of end-use devices and distributed energy resources in response to various signals such as pricing or emergency demand reduction signals from the utility; day-ahead weather forecasts; other external alerts (e.g., a signal could be sent to shut down the outdoor ventilation systems in the building in the event of a chemical attack in the area); and end-user signals (e.g., a facility manager could shut-down the building systems from an off-site location during an un-scheduled building closure)
• Allow the end-use devices, distributed energy resources, and/or control systems to send operational data to external parties (e.g., advanced meters that communicate directly with utilities)
• Communications systems that have an open architecture to enable interoperability and communications among devices.

Dynamic Energy Management Infrastructure

Figure 2 shows an example of the dynamic energy management infrastructure applied to a generic building. In this example there are two-way communications via the Internet as well as via the power line. The building is equipped with smart energy efficient end-use devices, an energy management system, automated controls with data management capabilities, and distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaics, wind turbines, and other onsite generation and storage systems. Thus, energy efficient devices, controls, and demand response strategies are coupled with onsite energy sources to serve as an additional energy resource for the utility. Not only do all of these elements contribute to the utilities supply-side by reducing building demand, the distributed energy resources can also feed excess power back to the grid.

Figure 2: Energy Management Infrastructure for Genetic Building

References

[1] Robert Jürgens and Martin Scholles, “Dynamic energy management for increased energy efficiency in modern induction heating systems”, Heat Processing · (8), Issue 2, 2010, pp. 163-165

[2] Kelly E. Parmenter, Patricia Hurtado, and Greg Wikler, “Dynamic Energy Management”, available online at: https://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2008/data/papers/10_559.pdf

[3]  Sergio Salinas and Ming Li, “Dynamic Energy Management for the Smart Grid with Distributed Energy Resources”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 4, No. 4, December 2013

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