What is Password Authentication protocol (PAP)
Technology & Science , Web Security / February 22, 2018

In many systems, the user authentication is widely applied and discussed in security services. Password authentication, which is widely used for authenticated method, also is important protocol by requiring a username and password before being allowed access to resources. In an internet environment, a remote user has to obtain the access right from a server before doing any job. The procedure of obtaining access right is called a user authentication protocol. User authentication via user memorable password provides convenience without needing any auxiliary devices, such as smart card. It is very common that a server in a network of resources is used to provide controlled access to the network or to applications residing within the network. Therefore, it is necessary for the server to authenticate the client via username and password. Overview of Password Authentication protocol Password authentication is one of the simplest and the most convenient authentication mechanisms to deal with secret data over insecure networks. It is more frequently required in areas such as computer networks, wireless networks, remote login systems, operation systems, and database management systems. To access resources at remote systems, users should have proper access rights. One of the simplest and most convenient security mechanisms is…

What is Plagiarism Detection
Big Data , Technology & Science , Web Security / February 15, 2018

Plagiarism is the reuse of someone else’s prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicitly acknowledging the original author and source. In modern years, plagiarism has raised great concern over knowledgeable property protection. Plagiarists violate knowledgeable property rights either by copying source/binary code or by stealing and covertly implementing protected algorithms. The first case is also known as software plagiarism. Plagiarism involves reproducing the existing information in modified format or sometimes the original document as it is. This is quiet common among students, researchers and academicians. This has made some strong influence on research community and awareness among academic peoples to prevent such a kind of misuse. in this presented article Plagiarism Detection is explained. Overview of Plagiarism Detection A word may have several possible meanings and senses due to the richness of natural languages, which make detecting plagiarism a hard task especially when dealing with semantic meaning, not just searching for patterns of text that are illegally copied from others (copy and paste texts from digital resources without acknowledging the original resource), Plagiarism occurs in various forms: submitting another’s work exactly same without proper citation, paraphrasing text, reordering the sentences, using synonyms, or changing grammar, code plagiarism etc. Plagiarism is…

What is Cross Site Scripting (XSS or CSS)

Nowadays, with the network expanding quickly, especially Web 2.0 increasing, internet is not anonymous to us anymore. It is a good platform for users to communicate, chat, do business or play game together. For instance, we usually go to Google to search information, Amazon or E-Bay to buy books and many other goods and we also go to My-Space to communicate with friends. Therefore, there is no doubt that Internet is gradually becoming an integral part our daily life. So providing a beneficial and safe networking environment is significantly necessary. If there is vulnerability in a famous website, a lot of visitors will be attacked customers and the result cannot be imagined. XSS is the most common security vulnerability in software today. This should not be the case as XSS is easy to find and easy to fix. XSS vulnerabilities can have consequences such as tampering and sensitive data theft. Overview With the Internet expanding quickly, there are more and more vulnerabilities which threaten billions of customers. Therefore, we must prevent these vulnerabilities from happening in order to provide a safer environment for surfing the Internet. Cross-site Scripting (XSS) refers to client-side code injection attack wherein an attacker can execute…

Understanding of Geographic Information System (GIS)

Geographical Information System (GIS) is a technology that provides the means to collect and use geographic data to assist in the development of Agriculture. A digital map is generally of much greater value than the same map printed on a paper as the digital version can be combined with other sources of data for analyzing information with a graphical presentation. The GIS software makes it possible to synthesize large amounts of different data, combining different layers of information to manage and retrieve the data in a more useful manner. GIS provides a powerful means for agricultural scientists to better service to the farmers and farming community in answering their query and helping in a better decision making to implement planning activities for the development of agriculture. overview of Geographic Information System (GIS) A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes, which are spatially referenced to the Earth. The geographical information system is also called as a geographic information system or geospatial information system. It is an information system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, sharing, and displaying geographically referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is a software tool that…

An Introduction of Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF/XSRF)
Technology & Science , Web Security / January 10, 2018

Now-a-days, Internet plays an important role for the business people and for the commercial use. Everyday life becomes easier for the internet users because of the progression in the technologies, but some vulnerability moves the web application to a risky environment. Even though many internet users get increased, the attackers too get increased in balance. So the security providence becomes must in the case of secure organization, defense personals and financial bank those interact with public. The web has become an indispensable part of our lives. Unfortunately, as our dependency on the web increases, so does the interest of attackers in exploiting web applications and web-based information systems. Definition of Cross Site Request Forgery Cross Site Request Forgery is considered as one of top vulnerability in today’s web, where an untrusted website can force the user browser to send the unauthorized valid request to the trusted site. Cross Site Request Forgery will let the integrity of the legitimate user. Cross‐site request forgery (CSRF; also known as XSRF or hostile linking) is a class of attack that affects web based applications with a predictable structure for invocation. This class of attack has in some form been known about and exploited since before…

What is Biometrics Authentication

One of our highest priorities in the world of information security is confirmation that a person accessing sensitive, confidential, or classified information is authorized to do so. Such access is usually accomplished by a person’s proving their identity by the use of some means or method of authentication. Biometrics is a field of technology which has been and is being used in the identification of individuals based on some physical attribute. Biometric technology is used for automatic personal recognition based on biological traits—fingerprint, iris, face, palm print, hand geometry, vascular pattern, voice or behavioral characteristics gait, signature, typing pattern. Fingerprinting is the oldest of these methods and has been utilized for over a century by law enforcement officials who use these distinctive characteristics to keep track of criminals. Basic Overview of Biometrics Authentication In this computer-driven era, identity theft and the loss or disclosure of data and related intellectual property are growing problems. We each have multiple accounts and use multiple passwords on an ever-increasing number of computers and Web sites. Maintaining and managing access while protecting both the user’s identity and the computer’s data and systems has become increasingly difficult. Central to all security is the concept of authentication –…

Introduction of Cyber Security
Technology & Science , Web Security / December 5, 2017

The term cyber security is often used interchangeably with the term information security. Cyber security is the activity of protecting information and information systems (networks, computers, data bases, data centres and applications) with appropriate procedural and technological security measures. Cyber security has become a matter of global interest and importance. Cyber security refers to a set of techniques used to protect the integrity of networks, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access. Cyber security Definition Cyber security is the collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets. Organization and user’s assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment. Cyber security strives to ensure the attainment and maintenance of the security properties of the organization and user’s assets against relevant security risks in the cyber environment. More specifically, “Cyber security refers to the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access. Cyber security may also be referred…

What is ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) Algorithm

There are even increasing efforts in searching and developing algorithms that can find solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. In this way, the Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic takes inspiration from biology and proposes different versions of still more efficient algorithms. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO): Overview Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a paradigm for designing metaheuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. The essential trait of ACO algorithms is the combination of a priori information about the structure of a promising solution with a posteriori information about the structure of previously obtained good solutions. ACO is a class of algorithms, whose first member, called Ant System, was initially proposed by Colorni, Dorigo and Maniezzo The main underlying idea, loosely inspired by the behavior of real ants, is that of a parallel search over several constructive computational threads based on local problem data and on a dynamic memory structure containing information on the quality of previously obtained result. The collective behavior emerging from the interaction of the different search threads has proved effective in solving combinatorial optimization (CO) problems. More specifically, we can say that “Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a population-based, general search technique for the solution of difficult combinatorial problems which is…

What is Steganography
Technology & Science , Web Security / November 3, 2017

Computer and internet are the major media that connects different parts of the world as one global virtual world in this modern era. That’s why we can exchange lots of information easily at any distance within seconds of time. But the confidential data need to be transferred should be kept confidential till the destination. Steganography: General Overview Due to advances in ICT (Information and Communication Technology), most of information is kept electronically. Consequently, the security of information has become a fundamental issue. Besides cryptography, steganography can be employed to secure information. Steganography is a technique of hiding information in digital media. In contrast to cryptography, the message or encrypted message is embedded in a digital host before passing it through the network, thus the existence of the message is unknown. Besides hiding data for confidentiality, this approach of information hiding can be extended to copyright protection for digital media: audio, video, and images. Nowadays, thanks to the stunningly fast advancement of the computer and network technology, people can easily send or receive secret information in various forms to or from almost any remotest part of the world through the Internet within seconds. In fact, there might be tons of secret…

What is Phishing in Web Security
Technology & Science , Web Security / October 25, 2017

Phishing is one of the luring techniques used by phishing artists with the intention of exploiting the personal details of unsuspected users. Phishing is a form of identity theft that occurs when a malicious Web site impersonates a legitimate one in order to acquire sensitive information such as passwords, account details, or credit card numbers. Though there are several anti-phishing software and techniques for detecting potential phishing attempts in emails and detecting phishing contents on websites, phishers come up with new and hybrid techniques to circumvent the available software and techniques. This section provide the detail study about the online phishing and their deployment techniques. Phishing: General Description Now a day’s attacks have become major issues in networks. Attacks will intrude into the network infrastructure and collect the information needed to cause vulnerability to the networks. Security is needed to prevent the data from various attacks. Attacks may either active attack or passive attack. One type of passive attack is phishing. Phishing is a continual threat and is larger in social media such as facebook twitter. Phishing emails contain link to the infected website. Phishing email direct the user to the infected website where they are asked to enter the…

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