What is Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Internet is a global public network. With the growth of the Internet and its potential, there has been subsequent change in business model of organizations across the world. More and more people are getting connected to the Internet every day to take advantage of the new business model popularly known as e-Business. Internetwork connectivity has therefore become very critical aspect of today’s e-business. “Intrusion is an unauthorized access to the system with the intent of doing theft of information or harms the system. The act of detecting intrusions, monitoring the incidents occurring in the computer system, the suspicious or unusual activities, taking place in the system, which can be the possible attack, is known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS)” If the computer is left unattended, any person can attempt to access and misuse the system. The problem is, however, far greater if the computer is connected to a network, particularly the Internet. Any user from around the world can reach the computer remotely (to some capacity) and may attempt to access private/confidential information or to launch some form of attack to bring the system to a halt or cease to function effectively. Overview The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in a…

Wireless Network Routing Protocol
Networking , Technology & Science / October 23, 2017

Due to the severe energy constraints of large number of densely deployed sensor nodes, it requires a suite of network protocols to implement various network control and management functions such as synchronization, node localization, and network security. A routing protocol is a set of rules used by routers to determine the most appropriate paths into which they should forward packets towards their intended destinations. Routing Protocol Overview A routing protocol is considered adaptive if certain system parameters can be controlled in order to adapt to current network conditions and available energy levels. Routing in wireless sensor networks differs from conventional routing in fixed networks in various ways. There is no infrastructure, wireless links are unreliable, sensor nodes may fail, and routing protocols have to meet strict energy saving requirements. Part of the job of the routing protocol is to specify how routers report changes and share information with the other routers in the network in order to update their routing tables, thereby allowing networks to dynamically adjust to changing conditions (e.g., changes in network topology and traffic patterns). Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one…

Self Organizing Map (SOM)

What is Self Organizing Map (SOM) A neural network is called a mapping network if it is able to compute some functional relationship between its input and its output. For example if the input to a network is the value of an angle and the output is the cosine of that angle, the network perform the mapping θ =cos (θ). For such a simple function, we do not need a Neural Network. However we might want to perform a complicated mapping where does not know how to describe the functional relationship in advance, but we do know of examples of the correct mapping. In this situation, Neural Network is applicable to discover its own algorithms which is extremely useful. Self Organizing Map: Overview The SOM algorithm is based on unsupervised, competitive learning. It provides a topology preserving mapping from the high dimensional space to map units. Map units, or neurons, usually form a two-dimensional lattice and thus the mapping is a mapping from high dimensional space onto a plane. The property of topology preserving means that the mapping preserves the relative distance between the points. Points that are near each other in the input space are mapped to nearby map…

Privacy Preserving Data Mining

Privacy is a matter of individual perception, an infallible and universal solution to this dichotomy is infeasible. The common term of privacy in the general, limits the information that is leaked by the distributed computation to be the information that can be learned from the designated output of the computation. The current state-of-the-art paradigm for privacy-preserving data mining is differential privacy, which allows un-trusted parties to access private data through aggregate queries. Privacy Preserving Data Mining : Overview The technology that converts clear text into a non-human readable form is called data anonymization. In recent years data anonymization technique for privacy-preserving data publishing of micro-data has received a lot of attention. Micro-data contains information about an individual entity, such as a person, a household or an organization. In each record a number of attributes can be categorized as i) Identifiers that can uniquely identify an individual, such as Name or Social Security Number ii) some attributes may be Sensitive Attributes (SAs) such as disease and salary and iii) some attributes are Quasi-Identifiers (QI) such as zip code, age, and sex which may be from publicly available database, whose values, when taken together, can potentially identify an individual. Data anonymization enables the transfer…

Virtual Machine Scheduling in Cloud

Virtualization plays an important role in providing resources to the users efficiently in cloud environment. Virtualization can be done in various ways like server virtualization, memory virtualization, storage virtualization, etc. For efficiently achieving virtualization, virtual machines (VM) are designed. Although virtual machine (VM) migration has been used to avoid conflicts on traditional system resources like CPU and memory, micro-architectural resources such as shared caches, memory controllers, and non-uniform memory access (NUMA) affinity, have only relied on intra-system scheduling to reduce contentions on them. Virtual Machine Scheduling: Overview In cloud systems based on virtualization, virtual machines (VM) share physical resources. Although resource sharing can improve the overall utilization of limited resources, contentions on the resources often lead to significant performance degradation. To mitigate the effect of such contentions, cloud systems use dynamic rescheduling of VMs with live migration technique [23], changing the placement of running VMs. However, such VM migration has been used to resolve conflicts or balance load on traditional allocatable system resources such as CPUs, memory, and I/O sub-systems. VM migration can be triggered by monitoring the usages of these resources for VMs in a cloud system. In the meantime, the advent of multi-cores has enabled the sharing of…

Face Recognition

Information and Communication Technologies are increasingly entering in all aspects of our life and in all sectors, opening a world of unprecedented scenarios where people interact with electronic devices embedded in environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of users. Indeed, since the first examples of “intelligent” buildings featuring computer aided security and fire safety systems, the request for more sophisticated services, provided according to each user’s specific needs has characterized the new tendencies within demotic research. With data and information accumulating in abundance, there is a crucial need for high security. Biometrics has now received more attention. Face biometrics, useful for a person’s authentication is a simple and non-intrusive method that recognizes face in complex multidimensional visual model and develops a computational model for it. Face Recognition Significance Face recognition is a biometric technique used for surveillance purposes such as search for wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. The term face recognition refers to identifying, by computational algorithms, an unknown face image. This operation can be done by comparing the unknown face with the faces stored in database. Face recognition has three stages a) face location detection b) feature extraction c) facial image classification. Face recognition…

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)
Networking , Technology & Science / October 17, 2017

There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. VANETs comprise vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications based on wireless local area network technologies. vehicular ad hoc networks: Overview The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. The growth of the increased number of vehicles are equipped with wireless transceivers to communicate with other vehicles to form a special class of wireless networks, known as vehicular ad hoc networks or VANETs. Rapid advances in wireless technologies provide opportunities to utilize these technologies in support of advanced vehicle safety applications. Figure 1 vehicular ad hoc networks In particular, the new Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) offers the potential to effectively support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside safety communications, which has become known as Vehicle Safety Communication (VSC) technologies. DSRC enables a new class of communication applications that will increase the overall safety and efficiency…

Digital Image Processing
Image Processing , Technology & Science / October 16, 2017

Digital image processing is concerned primarily with extracting useful information from images. Ideally, this is done by computers, with little or no human intervention. Image processing algorithms may be placed at three levels. At the lowest level are those techniques which deal directly with the raw, possibly noisy pixel values, with de-noising and edge detection being good examples. Digital image processing : Definition Digital image processing is the manipulation of the numeric data of the digital image for enhancing it to make it suitable for the further processing according to the specific application needs. Today, Image Processing systems are very popular due to easy availability of powerful computers, large size memory devices, graphics software etc. By doing image processing, corrupted pictures can be enhanced, medical images clarified, and satellite photographs improved. Image Processing is a technique to enhance raw images received from cameras/sensors placed on satellites, space and aircrafts or pictures taken in normal day-to-day life for various applications. A digital image is an array of real numbers represented by a finite number of bits. Basic operation of image processing can be shown with the help of figure 1. Figure 1: Basic Operations While acquiring the image from the source…

What is Cryptography

Cryptography is an indispensable tool used to protect information in computing systems. It is used everywhere and by billions of people worldwide on a daily basis. It is used to protect data at rest and data in motion. Cryptographic systems are an integral part of standard protocols, most notably the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it relatively easy to incorporate strong encryption into a wide range of applications. While extremely useful, cryptography is also highly brittle. The most secure cryptographic system can be rendered completely insecure by a single specification or programming error. No amount of unit testing will uncover security vulnerability in a cryptosystem. Cryptography Overview The word cryptography comes from the Greek words κρυπτο (hidden or secret) and γραφη (writing). Oddly enough, cryptography is the art of secret writing. More generally, people think of cryptography as the art of mangling information into apparent unintelligibility in a manner allowing a secret method of unmangling. The basic service provided by cryptography is the ability to send information between participants in a way that prevents others from reading it. This kind of cryptography can provide other services, such as Integrity checking—reassuring the recipient of a message that the message has…

Cloud Computing Introduction

Internet has been a driving force towards the various technologies that have been developed. Arguably, one of the most discussed among all of these is Cloud Computing. Over the last few years, cloud computing paradigm has witnessed an enormous shift towards its adoption and it has become a trend in the information technology space as it promises significant cost reductions and new business potential to its users and providers. This section provides the cloud computing and their basic overview about the different techniques that are utilized for further data sharing over cloud: Cloud Computing: Introduction Cloud computing is a computing paradigm, where a large pool of systems are connected in private or public networks, to provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for application, data and file storage. With the advent of this technology, the cost of computation, application hosting, content storage and delivery is reduced significantly. Cloud computing is a practical approach to experience direct cost benefits and it has the potential to transform a data center from a capital-intensive set up to a variable priced environment. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of reusability of IT capabilities. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to…

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