What is IP Spoofing in Web Security?

Criminals have long employed the tactic of masking their true identity, from disguises to aliases to caller-id blocking. It should come as no surprise then, that criminals who conduct their nefarious activities on networks and computers should employ such techniques. IP spoofing is one of the most common forms of on-line camouflage. In IP spoofing, an attacker gains unauthorized access to a computer or a network by making it appear that a malicious message has come from a trusted machine by “spoofing” the IP address of that machine. In this article, we will examine the concepts of IP spoofing: why it is possible, how it works, what it is used for and how to defend against it. Basic Overview IP Spoofing IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to machines, whereby an attacker illicitly impersonates another machine by manipulating IP packets. IP Spoofing involves modifying the packet header with a forged (spoofed) source IP address, a checksum, and the order value. Internet is a packet switched network, which causes the packets leaving one machine may be arriving at the destination machine in different order. The receiving machine resembles the message based on the order value embedded in…

What is Web Personalization and its needs and benefits ?

In the recent few decades the World Wide Web has become the biggest and most popular way of communication and information dissemination. World Wide Web is a huge repository of web pages and links and the volume of information available on the internet is increasing exponentially as approximately one million pages are added daily. The existence of such abundance of information, in combination with the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the web, makes web site exploration a difficult process for the average end user. So in spite of the fact that users are provided with more information and service options, the average end users may not get the “right” information only, in what they are interested in. with the explosive growth of the number and the complexity of information resources and the advent of e-services; it has become more difficult to access relevant information from the Web. Definition of Web Personalization Web Personalization is the process of creating customized experiences for visitors to a website. Rather than providing a single, broad experience, web personalization allows companies to present visitors with unique experiences tailored to their needs and desires. Personalization is by no means a new concept. Waiters will often greet…

What is Green Computing?
Technology & Science / June 25, 2018

The term ‘Green Computing’ is the study and practices that covers the computing life-cycle from cradle to grave. It start from design to manufacturing to use of equipment and then safely disposing-off computers, related devices, networking and communications equipment’s efficiently and effectively with negligible or no impact on the environment. Today’s computing vision is utility based Consumers only need to pay provider only when and how they access, they need not to invest much and there is no need to develop a complex and costly infrastructure, this model of computing is cloud computing. Basic Overview of Green Computing Green computing is receiving more and more attention with increasing energy cost and growing environmental disquiets. Green Computing is a latest movement in IT industry towards scheming, building, and operating computer systems to be energy proficient. Green computing is environmentally sustainable to use of computers and related resources efficiently and effectively. Green computing also called green technology whose goals are to diminish the use of perilous materials, maximize energy effectiveness during the lifetime of the product, and encourage the recyclability or Biodegradability of obsolete products and waste of factory. Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. Green…

Top Religious places in Madhyapradesh (MP)
Technology & Science / June 24, 2018

There’s always a time in our life when we look for a vacation to seek blessings of God, console our depressed souls and find the strength to face all the challenges. And trust me this once in a lifetime experience can be rejuvenating and it may change the course of your life. So, If you’re spiritually inclined and seeking a tour to reconnect with God, and fill your mind with positivity, then Madhya Pradesh is a must visit place for you. Madhya Pradesh is a melting pot that embraces people professing different religions. Thus, the state is home to many important worship places in India. The religious places strewn across the state are popular for their mystical overtones as well as for their architectural magnificence. Some of the most splendid temples in India adorn the landscape of Madhya Pradesh and heighten its popularity amongst religious travelers. Every year, many devotees flock to these religious destinations across the state, for offering their homage to Divinity. Hindu Religious Place to Visit in MP 1. Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, Ujjain Ujjain, considered to be one of the holiest cities of India, is an ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Shipra River in…

What is Red Green Blue (RGB) Color Model?

Colors are important for human for communicating with the daily encountered objects as well as his species, these colors should be represented formally and numerically within a mathematical formula so it can be projected on device/ computer storage and applications, this mathematical representation is known as color model that can hold the color space, by the means of color’s primary components (Red, Green, and Blue) the computer can visualizes what the human does in hue and lightness. Color Model Color models play an important role in real world applications such as computer graphics, image processing, television broadcasting, etc. Each color model has its own significance and applicable in different application domains. One of the interesting areas of digital image processing is to improve the image information for better processing image. Color model is a method for specifying colors in a standard way and the color model is represented by three dimensional coordinate system where each color is represented by single point within three dimensional systems. In case of human visual system, rods cells (in the eye) are sensitive to low intensity light waves recognizing binary images whereas cones cells are sensitive to red, green and blue light waves , thus,…

What is Hue Saturation Value (HSV) color Model?

To utilize color as a visual cue in multimedia, image processing, graphics and computer vision applications, an appropriate method for representing the color signal is needed. The different color specification systems or color models address this need. Color spaces provide a rational method to specify order, manipulate and effectively display the object colors taken into consideration. The purpose of a color model is to facilitate the specification of colors in some standard generally accepted way. In essence, a color model is a specification of a 3-D coordinate system and a subspace within that system where each color is represented by a single point. Basic Overview of HSV color Model Hue, Saturation, and Value (HSV) are a color model that is often used in place of the RGB color model in graphics and paint programs. In using this color model, a color is specified then white or black is added to easily make color adjustments. HSV may also be called HSB (short for hue, saturation and brightness). This color space describes colors (hue or tint) in terms of their shade (saturation or amount of gray) and their brightness value. The HSV color space (Hue, Saturation, Value) is often used by people…

What is 3D Secure Protocol in Web Security?

E-commerce represents a web-based Internet economy that has risen from zero, to over a trillion dollars worldwide, in just seventeen years. However, the security challenges faced by the world’s largest open (and effectively anonymous) network, have meant that the growth of the Internet – and e-commerce – has been met with an equally rapid growth in the activities of those intent on using the Internet as a vehicle for malicious and criminal activities online. 3D Secure is a security protocol that is designed to provide an additional layer of security for online credit card and debit card transactions. It allows shoppers to create and assign a password to their card that is then verified whenever a transaction is processed through a site that supports the use of the scheme. The addition of password protection allows extra security on transactions that are processed online. Basic Overview of 3D Secure Protocol 3D Secure (3-domain secure), also known as Payer Authentication is a security protocol to prevent fraud in transactions with credit and debit cards online. Currently, this service is provided by Visa and MasterCard under the name Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode, respectively. Payer Authentication is a three-part process. The parties involved…

What is different Steganography Technique in Image Steganography?
Computer Graphics , Cyber Security / June 19, 2018

Steganography is the idea of hiding private or sensitive data or information within something that appears to be nothing out of the normal. The word steganography comes from the Greek Steganos, which mean covered or secret and –graphy mean writing or drawing. Therefore, steganography means, literally, covered writing Over the past few years, numerous steganography techniques that embed hidden messages in multimedia objects have been proposed. Different Techniques There have been many techniques for hiding information or messages in images in such a manner that the alterations made to the image are perceptually indiscernible. Common approaches are including: Figure 1 Different Steganography Technique Least Significant Bit (LSB) Least significant bit (LSB) insertion is a common, simple approach to embedding information in a cover image. The least significant bit (in other words, the 8th bit) of some or all of the bytes inside an image is changed to a bit of the secret message. When using a 24-bit image, a bit of each of the red, green and blue colour components can be used, since they are each represented by a byte. In other words, one can store 3 bits in each pixel. An 800 × 600 pixel image, can thus store…

What are Cryptocurrencies in Digital World?
Technology & Science / June 16, 2018

Cryptocurrencies have increasingly become all the rage in digital currency market. Although blockchain’s decentralise and unregulated platform has resulted in the creation of hundreds of new cryptocurrencies, this has also led to the digital currency market becoming somewhat unstable. Over the past couple of years, popular cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, and ZCash, among others saw massive fluctuations in their value. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency that uses cryptography for security and anti-counterfeiting measures. Public and private keys are often used to transfer cryptocurrency between individuals. Basic Overview of Cryptocurrencies A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency designed to work as a medium of exchange. It uses cryptography to secure and verify transactions as well as to control the creation of new units of a particular cryptocurrency. Essentially, cryptocurrencies are limited entries in a database that no one can change unless specific conditions are fulfilled. As a counter-culture movement that is often connected to cypherpunks, cryptocurrency is essentially a fiat currency. This means users must reach a consensus about cryptocurrency’s value and use it as an exchange medium. However, because it is not tied to a particular country, its value is not controlled by a central…

What is Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) in Networking?
Networking , Technology & Science / June 14, 2018

Understanding networking is a fundamental part of configuring complex environments on the internet. This has implications when trying to communicate between servers efficiently, developing secure network policies, and keeping your nodes organized. CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) was introduced in 1993 replacing the previous generation of IP address syntax – classful networks. CIDR allowed for more efficient use of IPv4 address space and prefix aggregation, known as route summarization or supernetting. Basic Overview of CIDR A system called Classless Inter-Domain Routing, or CIDR, was developed as an alternative to traditional subnetting. The idea is that we can add a specification in the IP address itself as to the number of significant bits that make up the routing or networking portion. Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) is a set of Internet protocol (IP) standards that is used to create unique identifiers for networks and individual devices. The IP addresses allow particular information packets to be sent to specific computers. Shortly after the introduction of CIDR, technicians found it difficult to track and label IP addresses, so a notation system was developed to make the process more efficient and standardized. That system is known as CIDR notation. To illustrate the problems with the class…

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