What is Token Ring in Networking?
/ July 22, 2018

The robustness of token ring has won it a place in the heart of many large enterprise network The communication capabilities provided by local-area networks (LANs) are affected, to a large extent, by the performance of the medium access control protocol. In geographically concentrated areas, communication subnetworks usually realize a bus or ring topology. The IEEE 802 standardization body has established e.g. three standards for LAN medium access control protocols: CSMA/CD, token bus and token ring. The term “token ring” is used to describe a computer network configuration where each computer is linked to the computer next to it to form a closed ring. Basic Overview of Token Ring Token ring or IEEE 802.5 is a network where all computers are connected in a circular fashion. The term token is used to describe a segment of information that is sent through that circle; when a computer on the network can decode that token, it receives data. A token ring network is a local area network (LAN) topology where nodes/stations are arranged in a ring topology. Data passes sequentially between nodes on the network until it returns to the source station. To prevent congestion and collision, a token ring topology uses a token to…

What is Linear Search in Data Structure?
/ July 21, 2018

The study of data structures for facilitating rapid searching is a fascinating subject of both practical and theoretical interest. Sorting and Searching are two fundamental operations in a computer science. Sorting means arranging on data in given order such that increment or decrement. Searching means find out location or find out an element of a given item in a collection of item. Searching element is any type of a numerical data, alphabet, String, character data. Every searching algorithm depends on specific problem, property of data and algorithm complexity. A search algorithm is the step by step procedure used to locate specific data among the collections of data. Searching is considered as the most fundamental procedure in computer science. When the data is to be searched, the difference between a fast application and a slower one lies in the use of proper search algorithms. Definition of Linear Search Linear search, also known as sequential search, is a process that checks every element in the list sequentially until the desired element is found. The computational complexity for linear search is O(n), making it generally much less efficient than binary search (O(log n)). Linear search (sequential search) is the most simple approach to…

What is Information Resource Management?
Technology & Science / July 20, 2018

Growing awareness and consideration of the dependence of organizations upon their internal and external information systems and practices for continuing operational effectiveness is one of the key strands in recent management literature. This new sensitivity to informational contributions to organizational success has pushed into prominence cause and claims of information management. Information resource management (IRM) is currently favored concept linking managerial effectiveness and information acquisition and use. That represents latest synthesis of a range of ideas based on the premise that effective decision-making and strategic thinking cannot be divorced from information consideration. Basic Overview of Information Resource Management Information-based organizations depend upon computer databases and information systems for their ongoing operation and management. Information Resource Management (IRM) is a program of activities directed at making effective use of information technology within an organization. These activities range from global corporate information planning to application system development, operation, and maintenance and support of end-user computing. A foundational component of public administration, Information Resource Management (IRM) can be understood as a philosophy of management that recognizes and calls for the creation, identification, capture and management of information resources as corporate assets to enable and support the development of policy and effective decision making….

What is Information Visualization?
Technology & Science / July 19, 2018

There are several situations in the real world where we try to understand some phenomena, data, and events by graphics. People considerate the world is driven by our access to information. So, we collect it on our finances, health, sporting events of interest to us. In fact, we collect it on pretty much anything we can think of. It’s almost to the point where we are overwhelmed by the volume. Some would say it’s not worth much, and they’d be right! We need some means to glean understanding from this excess of information. One way we might do that is through information visualization. Information Visualization is essential reading for researchers and practitioners of information visualization and is of interest to computer scientists and data analysts working on related specialisms. Definition of Information Visualization Information visualization focuses on the development and empirical analysis of methods for presenting abstract information in visual form. The visual display of information allows people to become more easily aware of essential facts, to quickly see regularities and outliers in data, and therefore to develop a deeper understanding of data. Interactive visualization additionally takes advantage of people’s ability to also identify interesting facts when the visual display…

What is Web access Management?
Technology & Science / July 18, 2018

What is Management Information System (MIS)?
Technology & Science / July 17, 2018

Information system managers typically move up to such a position from other areas of information technology. The Management Information System (MIS) is a concept of the last decade or two. It has been understood and described in a number ways. It is also known as the Information System, the Information and Decision System, the Computer- based information System. MIS is the use of information technology, people, and business processes to record, store and process data to produce information that decision makers can use to make day to day decisions. Management Information Systems (MIS), referred to as Information Management and Systems, is the discipline covering the application of people, technologies, and procedures collectively called information systems, to solving business problems. Basic Overview of MIS MIS is the acronym for Management Information Systems. In a nutshell, MIS is a collection of systems, hardware, procedures and people that all work together to process, store, and produce information that is useful to the organization. “’MIS’ is a planned system of collecting, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management.” Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the…

What is Cache Memory in Computer Architecture?
Technology & Science / July 15, 2018

Processors are generally able to perform operations on operands faster than the access time of large capacity main memory. Though semiconductor memory which can operate at speeds comparable with the operation of the processor exists, it is not economical to provide all the main memory with very high speed semiconductor memory. The most frequently used data or instructions are kept in cache so that it can be accessed at a very fast rate improving overall performance of the computer. There are multiple level of cache with last level being largest and slowest to the first level being fastest and smallest. Basic Description about Cache memory Cache memory is a small-sized type of volatile computer memory that provides high-speed data access to a processor and stores frequently used computer programs, applications and data. It is the fastest memory in a computer, and is typically integrated onto the motherboard and directly embedded in the processor or main random access memory (RAM). Cache memories are small fast memories used to temporarily hold the contents of portions of main memory that are (believed to be) likely to be used. The idea of cache memories is similar to virtual memory in that some active portion…

What is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?
/ July 14, 2018

GSM was the most successful second generation cellular technology, but the need for higher data rates spawned new developments to enable data to be transferred at much higher rates. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an enhancement to the existing GSM network infrastructure and provides a connectionless packet data service. The same cellular base-stations that support voice calls are used to support GPRS and as a consequence GPRS can be used wherever it is possible to make a voice call. GPRS roaming agreements exist with a large number of countries and this means users can use GPRS devices whilst abroad. GPRS is based on internet Protocols (IP) and enables users to utilize a wide range of applications – email and internet and/or intranet resources for instance. With throughput rates of up to 40 Kbit/s, users have a similar access speed to a dial-up modem, but with the convenience of being able to connect from anywhere. Basic Overview of GPRS GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a service within the GSM network, just like the two most popular services SMS and voice connections. GPRS is used for transmitting data in the GSM network in from of packets. The connection to…

What is Packet Sniffing in Networking?
/ July 13, 2018

Packets in computer communications can be defined as a quantity of data of limited size. In Internet all traffic travels in the form of packets, the entire file downloads, Web page retrievals, email, all these Internet communications always occur in the form of packets. In the internet, packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet mode in computer network Packets are the base of all data sent on the internet, yet they are often used insecurely. Tampering with live packets and the process it takes in order to alter packets traveling along the network are getting easier. Packet sniffing is commonly described as monitoring packets as they go across a network. Packet sniffers are typically software based, but can be hardware pieces installed directly along the network. Sniffers can go beyond network hosts that are seen in local area networks (LAN) that only handle data that is sent specifically to them. Basics Overview of Packet Sniffing Packet sniffing is the act of capturing packets of data flowing across a computer network. The software or device used to do this is called a packet sniffer. Packet sniffing is to computer networks what wiretapping is to a telephone network. …

What is Information System?
Technology & Science / July 12, 2018

An information system is designed to collect, process, and store and information. Although information systems are upgraded continuously in this context Information Technology (IT) plays an important role. Due to technological innovations, today most information systems are based on modern IT technology. That enables efficient computing as well as effective management for all sizes of organizations. The information systems enable more diverse human behavior, therefore a profound influence over society is also affected by information system. These systems accelerate speed of daily jobs. That technology also enables us to develop and maintain new and more-rewarding relationships. Defining Information System An information system is integrated and co-ordinate network, which combine together to convert data into information. Information system (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities.  For example, that process information for organizations and includes manual and automated processes. Therefore large amounts of data are needed to be process. Basically, data is a value for given facts and stored on a database. However, information actually consists of data that can be organized is some information model that help in various application such as answers questions and solve problems. Such system is defined as software program that organize and…

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