Wireless Network Routing Protocol
Networking , Technology & Science / October 23, 2017

Due to the severe energy constraints of large number of densely deployed sensor nodes, it requires a suite of network protocols to implement various network control and management functions such as synchronization, node localization, and network security. A routing protocol is a set of rules used by routers to determine the most appropriate paths into which they should forward packets towards their intended destinations. Routing Protocol Overview A routing protocol is considered adaptive if certain system parameters can be controlled in order to adapt to current network conditions and available energy levels. Routing in wireless sensor networks differs from conventional routing in fixed networks in various ways. There is no infrastructure, wireless links are unreliable, sensor nodes may fail, and routing protocols have to meet strict energy saving requirements. Part of the job of the routing protocol is to specify how routers report changes and share information with the other routers in the network in order to update their routing tables, thereby allowing networks to dynamically adjust to changing conditions (e.g., changes in network topology and traffic patterns). Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one…

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)
Networking , Technology & Science / October 17, 2017

There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. VANETs comprise vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications based on wireless local area network technologies. vehicular ad hoc networks: Overview The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. The growth of the increased number of vehicles are equipped with wireless transceivers to communicate with other vehicles to form a special class of wireless networks, known as vehicular ad hoc networks or VANETs. Rapid advances in wireless technologies provide opportunities to utilize these technologies in support of advanced vehicle safety applications. Figure 1 vehicular ad hoc networks In particular, the new Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) offers the potential to effectively support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside safety communications, which has become known as Vehicle Safety Communication (VSC) technologies. DSRC enables a new class of communication applications that will increase the overall safety and efficiency…

What is Cryptography

Cryptography is an indispensable tool used to protect information in computing systems. It is used everywhere and by billions of people worldwide on a daily basis. It is used to protect data at rest and data in motion. Cryptographic systems are an integral part of standard protocols, most notably the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it relatively easy to incorporate strong encryption into a wide range of applications. While extremely useful, cryptography is also highly brittle. The most secure cryptographic system can be rendered completely insecure by a single specification or programming error. No amount of unit testing will uncover security vulnerability in a cryptosystem. Cryptography Overview The word cryptography comes from the Greek words κρυπτο (hidden or secret) and γραφη (writing). Oddly enough, cryptography is the art of secret writing. More generally, people think of cryptography as the art of mangling information into apparent unintelligibility in a manner allowing a secret method of unmangling. The basic service provided by cryptography is the ability to send information between participants in a way that prevents others from reading it. This kind of cryptography can provide other services, such as Integrity checking—reassuring the recipient of a message that the message has…

Vampire Attack in Wireless Sensor Network
Networking , Technology & Science / October 11, 2017

Introduction of Vampire Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks A new class of resource depletion attack has been discovered which permanently disable network by draining energy of network nodes called “Vampire Attack”. Vampire attacks are not affecting any specific protocol. Vampire attack causes composition and flooding of messages more similar to that generated by an honest node and drains the battery life from network nodes. Basically vampire attack is a variant of DDOS attacks, which performs resource consumption on neighbor nodes. Therefore, during the vampire attack targeted packets are modified for preparing long routes or misguiding the packets. In addition of that the malicious nodes are making frequent connectivity of the entire neighbor nodes in the network using false control message exchange. Due to these neighbor nodes replies the false request for connectivity and draining energy rapidly. Therefore, in order to detect and prevent the malicious nodes in the network a new kind of scheme is required which monitor the network node’s activity and provide the decision for malicious behaving nodes. Vampire attacks are not protocol-specific, in that they do not rely on design properties or implementation faults of particular routing protocols, but rather exploit general properties of protocol classes such as…

Load Balancing in Distributed System

A serious difficulty in concurrent programming of a distributed system is how to deal with scheduling and load balancing of such a system which may consist of heterogeneous computers. Load balancing comes under the area of resource management. In this section we describe the detail overview of the load balancing is a distributed environment in the scheduling perspectives. Load Balancing Overview With the great advancements in computer technology and the availability of many distributed systems, the problem of load balancing in distributed systems has gained a higher attention and importance. A dynamic load balancing algorithm assumes no a priori knowledge about job behavior or the global state of the system, i.e., load balancing decisions is solely based on the current status of the system. The development of an effective dynamic load balancing algorithm involves many important issues: load estimation, load levels comparison, performance indices, system stability, amount of information exchanged among nodes, job resource requirements estimation, job’s selection for transfer, remote nodes selection, and more. Outstanding progress in computer technology has lead to the rise of the demand of high speed processing and the need of high scalability, availability and rapid response. This resulted in use of parallel and distributed…

Wireless Mesh Network (WMN)
Networking , Technology & Science / October 9, 2017

Wireless Mesh Network: Introduction Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a promising wireless technology for several emerging and commercially interesting applications, e.g., broadband home networking, community and neighborhood networks, coordinated network management, intelligent transportation systems. It is gaining significant attention as a possible way for Internet service providers (ISPs) and other end users to establish robust and reliable wireless broadband service access at a reasonable cost. figure 1 contains an example of wireless mesh network. figure 1 example wireless mesh network Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is believed to be a highly promising technology and will play an increasingly important role in future generation wireless mobile networks. WMN is characterized by dynamic self-organization, self-configuration and self-healing to enable quick deployment, easy maintenance, low cost, high scalability and reliable services, as well as enhancing network capacity, connectivity and resilience. Wireless mesh network (WMN) is a radical network form of the ever evolving wireless networks that marks the divergence from the traditional centralized wireless systems such as cellular networks and wireless local area networks (LANs). Wireless Mesh Network: Definition A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a communications network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is also a form of…

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic algorithms are a part of evolutionary computing, which is a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence. Nature has always been a great source of inspiration to all mankind. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are search based algorithms based on the concepts of natural selection and genetics. GAs is a subset of a much larger branch of computation known as Evolutionary Computation Genetic algorithms are inspired by Darwin’s theory about evolution. Simply said, solution to a problem solved by genetic algorithms is evolved. Genetic Algorithms are a family of computational models inspired by evolution These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on a simple chromosomelike data structure and apply recombination operators to these structures so as to preserve critical information Genetic algorithms are often viewed as function optimizers although the range of problems to which genetic algorithms have been applied is quite broad. Definition of Genetic algorithm Genetic Algorithms are heuristic search approaches that are applicable to a wide range of optimization problems. This flexibility makes them attractive for many optimization problems in practice. Evolution is the basis of Genetic Algorithms. The current variety and success of species is a good reason for believing in the power of evolution. Species are…

NS2 Simulator: An Introduction
Networking , Technology & Science / September 14, 2017

Simulation Overview Simulation is widely-used in system modelling for applications ranging from engineering research, business analysis, manufacturing planning, and biological science experimentation. Networking study, implementation, testing and evaluation is not feasible without Network simulation. It is a technique where a code incorporates the behaviour of a network by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (hosts/packets, etc.) using mathematical modelling. Simulators are used for the development of new networking architectures, protocols or to modify the existing protocols in efficient environment. Network simulator provides benefits of time as well as cost saving while implementing and testing any wired or wireless network. Due to growth of communication networks and ever increasing networking speed, the role of efficient Network simulators in research field is important. A network simulator is a piece of software or hardware that predicts the behaviour of a network, without an actual network being present. A simulation is, more or less, a combination of art and science. That is, while the expertise in computer programming and the applied mathematical tools account for the science part, the very skill in analysis and conceptual model formulation usually represents the art portion. A simulation can be thought of as a flow process…

An Overview of Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO): introduction Particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulates the behaviors of bird flocking. Suppose the following scenario: a group of birds are randomly searching food in an area. There is only one piece of food in the area being searched. All the birds do not know where the food is. But they know how far the food is in each iteration. So what’s the best strategy to find the food? The effective one is to follow the bird which is nearest to the food. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based stochastic optimization technique developed by Dr. Eberhart and Dr. Kennedy in 1995. Definition Theory of particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been growing rapidly. PSO has been used by many applications of several problems. The algorithm of PSO emulates from behavior of animals societies that don’t have any leader in their group or swarm, such as bird flocking and fish schooling. Typically, a flock of animals that have no leaders will find food by random, follow one of the members of the group that has the closest position with a food source (potential solution). The flocks achieve their best condition simultaneously through communication among members who already have…

Wireless Sensor Network
Networking , Technology & Science / September 1, 2017

Wireless Sensor Network introduction Efficient design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research in recent years, due to the vast potential of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world. By networking large numbers of tiny sensor nodes, it is possible to obtain data about physical phenomena that was difficult or impossible to obtain in more conventional ways. In the coming years, as advances in micro-fabrication technology allow the cost of manufacturing sensor nodes to continue to drop, increasing deployments of wireless sensor networks are expected, with the networks eventually growing to large numbers of nodes. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely considered as one of the most important technologies for the twenty – first century. Enabled by recent advances in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS) and wireless communication technologies, tiny, cheap, and smart sensors deployed in a physical area and networked through wireless links and the Internet provide unprecedented opportunities for a variety of civilian and military applications, for example, environmental monitoring, battle field surveillance, and industry process control. Definition Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be defined as a self-configured and infrastructureless wireless networks to monitor physical…

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