NS2 Simulator: An Introduction
Networking , Technology & Science / September 14, 2017

Simulation Overview Simulation is widely-used in system modelling for applications ranging from engineering research, business analysis, manufacturing planning, and biological science experimentation. Networking study, implementation, testing and evaluation is not feasible without Network simulation. It is a technique where a code incorporates the behaviour of a network by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (hosts/packets, etc.) using mathematical modelling. Simulators are used for the development of new networking architectures, protocols or to modify the existing protocols in efficient environment. Network simulator provides benefits of time as well as cost saving while implementing and testing any wired or wireless network. Due to growth of communication networks and ever increasing networking speed, the role of efficient Network simulators in research field is important. A network simulator is a piece of software or hardware that predicts the behaviour of a network, without an actual network being present. A simulation is, more or less, a combination of art and science. That is, while the expertise in computer programming and the applied mathematical tools account for the science part, the very skill in analysis and conceptual model formulation usually represents the art portion. A simulation can be thought of as a flow process…

An Overview of Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO): introduction Particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulates the behaviors of bird flocking. Suppose the following scenario: a group of birds are randomly searching food in an area. There is only one piece of food in the area being searched. All the birds do not know where the food is. But they know how far the food is in each iteration. So what’s the best strategy to find the food? The effective one is to follow the bird which is nearest to the food. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based stochastic optimization technique developed by Dr. Eberhart and Dr. Kennedy in 1995. Definition Theory of particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been growing rapidly. PSO has been used by many applications of several problems. The algorithm of PSO emulates from behavior of animals societies that don’t have any leader in their group or swarm, such as bird flocking and fish schooling. Typically, a flock of animals that have no leaders will find food by random, follow one of the members of the group that has the closest position with a food source (potential solution). The flocks achieve their best condition simultaneously through communication among members who already have…

Wireless Sensor Network
Networking , Technology & Science / September 1, 2017

Wireless Sensor Network introduction Efficient design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research in recent years, due to the vast potential of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world. By networking large numbers of tiny sensor nodes, it is possible to obtain data about physical phenomena that was difficult or impossible to obtain in more conventional ways. In the coming years, as advances in micro-fabrication technology allow the cost of manufacturing sensor nodes to continue to drop, increasing deployments of wireless sensor networks are expected, with the networks eventually growing to large numbers of nodes. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely considered as one of the most important technologies for the twenty – first century. Enabled by recent advances in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS) and wireless communication technologies, tiny, cheap, and smart sensors deployed in a physical area and networked through wireless links and the Internet provide unprecedented opportunities for a variety of civilian and military applications, for example, environmental monitoring, battle field surveillance, and industry process control. Definition Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be defined as a self-configured and infrastructureless wireless networks to monitor physical…

WormHole Attack in MANET
Networking , Technology & Science / August 19, 2017

A wireless ad-hoc network is temporarily set network by wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the place that have no fixed infrastructure and all of the transmission links are established through wireless medium. MANETs are a kind of wireless ad-hoc network. Each node in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction leads to changing its links to other nodes frequently. Each node operates as an end system and also as a router to forward packets. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each node to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Wireless ad-hoc network is promising in solving many challenging real-world problems like military field operation, communication in emergency response system and oil drilling and mining operation. Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are vulnerable to many security attacks because of shared channel, insecure operating environment, lack of central authority, limited resource availability, dynamically changing network topology, resource constraints. MANET’s open issues are like security problem, finite transmission bandwidth, abusive broadcasting messages, reliable data delivery, dynamic link establishment and restricted hardware caused processing capabilities emerges into new horizon of different research areas. Wormhole Attack In MANETs, each node communicates directly with its neighboring nodes…

Black-hole Attack in MANET
Networking , Technology & Science / August 17, 2017

Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET) Attack Wireless networks can be basically either infrastructure based networks or infrastructure less networks. The infrastructure based networks uses fixed base stations, which are responsible for coordinating communication between the mobile hosts (nodes). The ad hoc networks falls under the class of infrastructure less networks, where the mobile nodes communicate with each other without any fixed infrastructure between them. An ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that do not rely on a predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. So the functioning of Ad-hoc networks is dependent on the trust and co-operation between nodes. Nodes help each other in conveying information about the topology of the network and share the responsibility of managing the network. Hence in addition to acting as hosts, each mobile node does the function of routing and relaying messages for other mobile nodes. Black-hole Attack Security in a MANET is an essential component for basic network functions like packet forwarding and routing.  Before we survey the solutions that can help secure the mobile ad hoc network, we think it necessary to find out how we can judge if a mobile ad hoc network is secure or not, or in other words,…

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Networking , Technology & Science / August 10, 2017

MANET Overview The new generation network that includes the wireless devices which are able to move freely or independently in random directions and speed with regulation of any authority and connected through the wireless links can be termed as ad-hoc networks. Fast expansion of wireless communication technology and the broad usage of mobile communication tools, wireless ad hoc networks are getting more and more consideration. Nowadays, wireless ad hoc networks are not only used in military, but also been applied to civilian application, including home area networks, mobile communication networks, and so on. With the widespread rapid development of computers and the wireless communication, the mobile computing has already become the field of computer communications in high-profile link. An Ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes, which forms a temporary network without the aid of centralized administration or standard support devices regularly available as conventional networks. These nodes generally have a limited transmission range and, so, each node seeks the assistance of its neighboring nodes in forwarding packets and hence the nodes in an Ad hoc network can act as both routers and hosts. Thus a node may forward packets between other nodes as well as run user applications….

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