Rule based System
/ December 28, 2017

Knowledge is practical or theoretical understanding of a subject or domain. Thus who possess knowledge are called experts. The human mental process is internal, it is too complex to be represented as an algorithm. However, most experts are capable of expressing their knowledge in the form of rules for problem solving. Rules are the popular paradigm for representing knowledge. A rule based expert system is one whose knowledge base contains the domain knowledge coded in the form of rules. Overview of Rule Based Systems Instead of representing knowledge in a relatively declarative, static way (as a bunch of things that are true), rule based system represent knowledge in terms of a bunch of rules that tell you what you should do or what you could conclude in different situations. A rule-based system consists of a bunch of IF-THEN rules, a bunch of facts, and some interpreter controlling the application of the rules, given the facts Rule-based systems (also known as production systems or expert systems) are the simplest form of artificial intelligence. A rule based system uses rules as the knowledge representation for knowledge coded into the system. The definitions of rule-based system depend almost entirely on expert systems, which…

Introduction of Data Compression
/ December 27, 2017

Data Compression is used just about everywhere. Data compression involves the development of a compact representation of information. Most representations of information contain large amounts of redundancy. Redundancy can exist in various forms. Internet users who download or upload files from/to the web, or use email to send or receive attachments will most likely have encountered files in compressed format. Data Compression Overview With the extending use of computer in various disciplines, number of data processing applications is also increasing which requires processing and storage of large volumes of data. Data compression is primarily a branch of information theory which deals with techniques related to minimizing the amount of data to be transmitted and stored. Data compression is often referred to as coding, where coding is a very general term encompassing any special representation of data which satisfies a given need. Information theory is defined to be the study of efficient coding and its consequences, in the form of speed. What is Data Compression ? Today, with the growing demands of information storage and data transfer, data compression is becoming increasingly important. Compression is the process of encoding data more efficiently to achieve a reduction in file size. One type of compression…

What is ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) Algorithm
/ November 29, 2017

There are even increasing efforts in searching and developing algorithms that can find solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. In this way, the Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic takes inspiration from biology and proposes different versions of still more efficient algorithms. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO): Overview Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a paradigm for designing metaheuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. The essential trait of ACO algorithms is the combination of a priori information about the structure of a promising solution with a posteriori information about the structure of previously obtained good solutions. ACO is a class of algorithms, whose first member, called Ant System, was initially proposed by Colorni, Dorigo and Maniezzo The main underlying idea, loosely inspired by the behavior of real ants, is that of a parallel search over several constructive computational threads based on local problem data and on a dynamic memory structure containing information on the quality of previously obtained result. The collective behavior emerging from the interaction of the different search threads has proved effective in solving combinatorial optimization (CO) problems. More specifically, we can say that “Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a population-based, general search technique for the solution of difficult combinatorial problems which is…

Community Detection : Unsupervised Learning
/ November 9, 2017

Advances in technology and computation have provided the possibility of collecting and mining a massive amount of real-world data. Mining such “big data” allows us to understand the structure and the function of real systems and to find unknown and interesting patterns. This section provides the brief overview of the community structure. Introduction of Community Detection In the actual interconnected world, and the rising of online social networks the graph mining and the community detection become completely up-to-date. Understanding the formation and evolution of communities is a long-standing research topic in sociology in part because of its fundamental connections with the studies of urban development, criminology, social marketing, and several other areas. With increasing popularity of online social network services like Facebook, the study of community structures assumes more significance. Identifying and detecting communities are not only of particular importance but have immediate applications. For instance, for effective online marketing, such as placing online ads or deploying viral marketing strategies [10], identifying communities in social network could often lead to more accurate targeting and better marketing results. Albeit online user profiles or other semantic information is helpful to discover user segments this kind of information is often at a coarse-grained level…

What is Mobile Computing
/ October 26, 2017

Mobile Computing is a technology that allows transmission of data, voice and video via a computer or any other wireless enabled device without having to be connected to a fixed physical link. Mobile computing (or ubiquitous computing as it is sometimes called) is the use of computers in a non-static environment. This use may range from using notebook-type computers away from one’s office or home to the use of handheld, palmtop-type PDA-like devices to perform both simple and complex computing tasks. Mobile Computing: General Mobile device has become essential part of human life. Apart from call and receive functions, user can access many function in his/her mobile. A user wants everything on his/her mobile device for the ease of work. Some people use tablets instead of laptop or desktop. Despite increasing usage of mobile computing, exploiting its full potential is difficult due to its inherent problems such as resource scarcity, frequent disconnections, and mobility. Mobile cloud computing can address these problems by executing mobile applications on resource providers external to the mobile device. Mobile phones are set to become the universal interface to online services and cloud computing applications. However, using them for this purpose today is limited to two…

What is Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
/ October 24, 2017

Internet is a global public network. With the growth of the Internet and its potential, there has been subsequent change in business model of organizations across the world. More and more people are getting connected to the Internet every day to take advantage of the new business model popularly known as e-Business. Internetwork connectivity has therefore become very critical aspect of today’s e-business. “Intrusion is an unauthorized access to the system with the intent of doing theft of information or harms the system. The act of detecting intrusions, monitoring the incidents occurring in the computer system, the suspicious or unusual activities, taking place in the system, which can be the possible attack, is known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS)” If the computer is left unattended, any person can attempt to access and misuse the system. The problem is, however, far greater if the computer is connected to a network, particularly the Internet. Any user from around the world can reach the computer remotely (to some capacity) and may attempt to access private/confidential information or to launch some form of attack to bring the system to a halt or cease to function effectively. Overview The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in a…

Wireless Network Routing Protocol
/ October 23, 2017

Due to the severe energy constraints of large number of densely deployed sensor nodes, it requires a suite of network protocols to implement various network control and management functions such as synchronization, node localization, and network security. A routing protocol is a set of rules used by routers to determine the most appropriate paths into which they should forward packets towards their intended destinations. Routing Protocol Overview A routing protocol is considered adaptive if certain system parameters can be controlled in order to adapt to current network conditions and available energy levels. Routing in wireless sensor networks differs from conventional routing in fixed networks in various ways. There is no infrastructure, wireless links are unreliable, sensor nodes may fail, and routing protocols have to meet strict energy saving requirements. Part of the job of the routing protocol is to specify how routers report changes and share information with the other routers in the network in order to update their routing tables, thereby allowing networks to dynamically adjust to changing conditions (e.g., changes in network topology and traffic patterns). Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one…

/ October 17, 2017

There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. VANETs comprise vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications based on wireless local area network technologies. vehicular ad hoc networks: Overview The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. The growth of the increased number of vehicles are equipped with wireless transceivers to communicate with other vehicles to form a special class of wireless networks, known as vehicular ad hoc networks or VANETs. Rapid advances in wireless technologies provide opportunities to utilize these technologies in support of advanced vehicle safety applications. Figure 1 vehicular ad hoc networks In particular, the new Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) offers the potential to effectively support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside safety communications, which has become known as Vehicle Safety Communication (VSC) technologies. DSRC enables a new class of communication applications that will increase the overall safety and efficiency…

What is Cryptography
/ October 13, 2017

Cryptography is an indispensable tool used to protect information in computing systems. It is used everywhere and by billions of people worldwide on a daily basis. It is used to protect data at rest and data in motion. Cryptographic systems are an integral part of standard protocols, most notably the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it relatively easy to incorporate strong encryption into a wide range of applications. While extremely useful, cryptography is also highly brittle. The most secure cryptographic system can be rendered completely insecure by a single specification or programming error. No amount of unit testing will uncover security vulnerability in a cryptosystem. Cryptography Overview The word cryptography comes from the Greek words κρυπτο (hidden or secret) and γραφη (writing). Oddly enough, cryptography is the art of secret writing. More generally, people think of cryptography as the art of mangling information into apparent unintelligibility in a manner allowing a secret method of unmangling. The basic service provided by cryptography is the ability to send information between participants in a way that prevents others from reading it. This kind of cryptography can provide other services, such as Integrity checking—reassuring the recipient of a message that the message has…

Vampire Attack in Wireless Sensor Network
/ October 11, 2017

Introduction of Vampire Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks A new class of resource depletion attack has been discovered which permanently disable network by draining energy of network nodes called “Vampire Attack”. Vampire attacks are not affecting any specific protocol. Vampire attack causes composition and flooding of messages more similar to that generated by an honest node and drains the battery life from network nodes. Basically vampire attack is a variant of DDOS attacks, which performs resource consumption on neighbor nodes. Therefore, during the vampire attack targeted packets are modified for preparing long routes or misguiding the packets. In addition of that the malicious nodes are making frequent connectivity of the entire neighbor nodes in the network using false control message exchange. Due to these neighbor nodes replies the false request for connectivity and draining energy rapidly. Therefore, in order to detect and prevent the malicious nodes in the network a new kind of scheme is required which monitor the network node’s activity and provide the decision for malicious behaving nodes. Vampire attacks are not protocol-specific, in that they do not rely on design properties or implementation faults of particular routing protocols, but rather exploit general properties of protocol classes such as…

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