What is Blockchain Technology And How It Is Useful For Us
/ March 18, 2018

Blockchain is being termed as the fifth disruptive innovation in computing. Blockchain technology or the distributed, secure ledger technology has gained much attention in recent years. This article presents blockchain technology literature and its applications. A very significant plus of the blockchain technology is that it solves two of the most dreaded problems of currency based transactions, which have so long necessitated the requirement of a third party to validate the transactions. Blockchain Overview Blockchain technology is a sophisticated, interesting, and emerging technology. It provides a reliable way of confirming the party submitting a record to the blockchain, the time and date of its submission, and the contents of the record at the time of submission, eliminating the need for third-party intermediaries in certain situations. However, it is important to consider that blockchain technology does not verify or address the reliability or the accuracy of the contents, and additionally blockchain technology provides no storage for records, but instead the hashes thereof A blockchain is an electronic ledger of digital records, events, or transactions that are cryptographically hashed, authenticated, and maintained through a “distributed” or “shared” network of participants using a group consensus protocol. Much like a checkbook is a ledger…

What is Domain Name System (DNS) in Networking
/ March 8, 2018

As a critical component of the Internet’s infrastructure, the Domain Name System (DNS) is the translation system that turns an Internet host name (domain name) into the unique series of numbers which constitute an Internet Protocol (IP) address for each specific domain name. The DNS plays a critical role in supporting the Internet infrastructure by providing a distributed and fairly robust mechanism that resolves Internet host names into IP addresses and IP addresses back into host names. The DNS is a critical application for the reliable and trustworthy operation of the Internet. Domain Name System (DNS) enables you to use hierarchical, friendly names to easily locate computers and other resources on an IP network. Overview of Domain Name System (DNS) To send a packet to a remote host over the internet, knowledge of the IP address of that specific host is necessary, similar to the working of the telephone network where a phone number is necessary to reach a specific person. However, remembering the IP addresses of all hosts somebody might want to communicate with is rather difficult. Furthermore one probably want to reach a certain remote application, e.g. a website, regardless of the physical machine this application is running…

What is Sybil Attack in Wireless Networks
/ March 7, 2018

Wireless networking is inherently insecure. Wireless technologies, in the simplest sense, enable one or more devices to communicate without physical connections without requiring network or peripheral cabling. Security in computer world determines the ability of the system to manage, protect and distribute sensitive information. An ever-existing concern is the lack of security due to the very fact that the technology is wireless and is vulnerable to security threats & attacks. Many security mechanisms are based on specific assumptions of identity and are vulnerable to attacks when these assumptions are violated. Overview of Sybil Attack The Sybil attack in computer security is an attack wherein a reputation system is subverted by forging identities in peer-to-peer networks. A Sybil attack is one in which a malicious node on a network illegitimately claims to be several different nodes simultaneously. If an entity on a network does not have physical knowledge of the other entities, it will perceive them purely as informational abstractions called identities. . By illegitimately infusing false or biased information via the pseudonymous identities, an adversary can mislead a system into making decisions benefiting herself The term Sybil attack is to denote an attack where the attacker (Sybil node) tries to…

What is Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
/ February 23, 2018

Today is the era of information technology. Nowadays online shopping increase in market, use of E-payment gives more important benefits to merchants as well as customers. All online transactions must pass through a Payment Gateway to be processed. In effect, Payment Gateways act as a bridge between the merchant’s website and the financial institutions that process the transaction. Nowadays the payment approaches via the internet and the network has been growing at a furious pace. In this way, the variety of the electronic payment systems consists of a numerous types to achieve a strong level of the security. Electronic payment is the very important step of the electronic business system, and its security must be ensured. Overview of Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) The Secure Electronic Transaction protocol also known as SET is a method for providing secure credit card transactions on the Internet. The SET protocol is designed to operate both in real time, as on the World Wide Web, and in a store-and-forward environment, such as e-mail. Furthermore, as an open standard, SET is designed to allow consumers, merchants, and banking software companies to independently develop software for their respective clienteles and to have them interoperate successfully. However, in…

What is Content Delivery Network (CDN)
/ February 8, 2018

With the proliferation of the Internet, popular Web services often suffer congestion and bottlenecks due to large demands made on their services. Such a scenario may cause unmanageable levels of traffic flow, resulting in many requests being lost. Replicating the same content or services over several mirrored Web servers strategically placed at various locations is a method commonly used by service providers to improve performance and scalability. The user is redirected to the nearest server and this approach helps to reduce network impact on the response time of the user requests. What is it? Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) provide services that improve network performance by maximizing bandwidth, improving accessibility and maintaining correctness through content replication. They offer fast and reliable applications and services by distributing content to cache or edge servers located close to users. CDNs have evolved to overcome the inherent limitations of the Internet in terms of user perceived Quality of Service (QoS) when accessing Web content. They provide services that improve network performance by maximizing bandwidth, improving accessibility, and maintaining correctness through content replication. The typical functionalities of a CDN include: Request redirection and content delivery services, to direct a request to the closest suitable CDN cache…

What is Man in the Middle Attack and Techniques of Deployment
/ January 30, 2018

Security is kept at the topmost priority when it comes in the field of networking and communications. Surfing the internet through untrustworthy public networks (whether wired or wireless) has been known to be risky for a long time now. We all think twice before logging into our bank account or accessing any kind of sensitive information. this topic is helps to understand the man-in-the-middle attack. Overview of man-in-the-middle attack A man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyberattack where a malicious actor inserts him/herself into a conversation between two parties, impersonates both parties and gains access to information that the two parties were trying to send to each other. A man-in-the-middle attack allows a malicious actor to intercept, send and receive data meant for someone else, or not meant to be sent at all, without either outside party knowing until it is too late. MITM attacks are relatively uncommon in the wired Internet, since there are very few places where an attacker can insert itself between two communicating terminals and remain undetected. For wireless links, however, the situation is quite different. Unless proper security is maintained on wireless last hop links, it can be fairly easy for an attacker to insert itself, depending on…

How to create Wireless Network using NS2 simulator
/ January 23, 2018

NS2 is one of the best simulation tool used by bulk of scholars today due to its highlighted features like sustain for OOPs concept, C++ programming fundamentals, real time emulation support etc. NS2 is used to simulate both wired and wireless networks; here we have focused on wireless network simulation in NS2 due to its wide applicability. We are going to simulate a very simple 2-node wireless scenario. The topology consists of two mobile nodes,  and  the mobile nodes move about within an area whose boundary is defined in this example as. The nodes start firstly at two opposite ends of the boundary. Then they move towards each other in the first half of the simulation and again move away for the second half. A TCP connection is setup between the two mobile nodes. Packets are exchanged between the nodes as they come within hearing range of one another. The simulation script is representing here for 2 wireless nodes in network simulation version-2. Simulation Script #Filename: MyFirstSimulation.tcl #TCL – Tool Command Language # Simulator Instance Creation set ns [new Simulator] #Fixing the co-ordinate of simulation area set val(x) 500 set val(y) 500 # Define options set val(chan) Channel/WirelessChannel // channel…

Wireless Networks and Mobility Model
/ January 21, 2018

In recent years, the deployment and importance of wireless networks has grown rapidly. Mobility plays a key role in this regard, and has driven the development of many new services, such as VoIP and interactive multimedia. Simulations of wireless networks employ several components critical to the accuracy of the simulations, one of the most important being the choice of mobility model, which creates the movement patterns of mobile nodes that forms the varying topology of the network. A typical mobility model first places the mobile nodes in their initial locations and defines the way that the nodes move within the network. Indeed, the mobility model emulates the real user movement through the inclusion of the critical movement factors such as direction, speed, destination, and the movement histories of the same, or similar, users. Overview of Mobility Model The mobility patterns are the key criteria that influence the performance characteristics of the mobile ad hoc networks. The mobility model is designed to describe the movement pattern of mobile users, and how their location, velocity and acceleration change over time. Since mobility patterns may play a significant role in determining the protocol performance, it is desirable for mobility models to emulate the movement…

Voice over Long Term Evolution (VoLTE)
/ January 16, 2018

Rapid increase in data traffic over cellular network is necessitating deployment of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in the cellular operator’s networks. While LTE provides efficient data traffic handling and high data rates, it lacks native circuit switched voice capability. Mobile operators have begun migrating to fourth-generation (4G) architectures based on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) standard, including the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) architecture defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). According to a recent report from the Global mobile Supplies Association (GSA), LTE has become the fastest-developing mobile communications systems technology. What is Voice over Long Term Evolution (VoLTE)? The data traffic, in telecom system, is growing at a rapid pace. However, presently for any mobile system to be commercially viable, the ability to carry voice traffic is essential. The existing 2G/3G mobile systems use “Circuit Switching” to carry voice traffic. In Circuit Switching a dedicated, end-to-end, channel or circuit is established to carry the voice traffic for the entire duration of a transmission. On the other hand, in case of IP networks, the voice traffic is carried using IP packets over data connection. For this generally “VoIP” or “VoLTE” solutions are used. For mobile communications service providers (CSPs), Voice…

What is Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN)
/ January 15, 2018

Increasing complexity in telecommunications services requires ever more complex standards, and therefore the need for better means to write them. Today’s wireless subscribers are much more sophisticated telecommunications users than they were five years ago. No longer satisfied with just completing a clear call, today’s subscribers demand innovative ways to use the wireless phone. They want multiple services that allow them to handle or select incoming calls in a variety of ways. Wireless Intelligent network is developed to drive intelligent network capabilities such as service independence, separation of basic switching functions from service and application functions and independence of applications from lower-level communication details into wireless networks. Introduction of Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) Enhanced services are very important to wireless customers. They have come to expect, for instance, services such as caller ID and voice messaging bundled in the package when they buy and activate a cellular or personal communications service (PCS) phone. Whether prepaid, voice/data messaging, Internet surfing, or location-sensitive billing, enhanced services will become an important differentiator in an already crowded, competitive service-provider market. Enhanced services will also entice potentially new subscribers to sign up for service and will drive up airtime through increased usage of PCS or…

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