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What is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in Computer Network?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 26, 2018

Since the invention of the telephone, real time communication networks have mostly been built using closed circuit switched network infrastructures, e.g. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). With the advent and the increasing popularity of the packet-switched Internet data network, providers are seeking ways to combine both communication and data networks on an all-IP network basis. Session Initiation Protocol is a core protocol for coming real time communication networks. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most common protocols used in VoIP technology. It is an application layer protocol that works in conjunction with other application layer protocols to control multimedia communication sessions over the Internet. Overview of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions (conferences). A session is considered as an exchange of data between an association of participants, such as Internet telephony calls and video telephony. SIP is able to support multicast conferences with more than two participants. Participants can be invited to already existing sessions. Media can be added to (and removed from) an existing session. SIP can be used to control Internet multimedia conferences, Internet telephone calls and multimedia distribution, in…

What is Post office protocol 3 (POP3)?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 21, 2018

Electronic mail is the core of modern communications. People rely on email to conduct their business and stay in touch with families. The ubiquity of an email availability is one of the strengths of the internet whose phenomenal growth and popularity are also due to the popularity of an email. E-mail system has become the most popular computer based method used to send and receive E-mail messages between the network clients inside or outside the local network. The most important point in E-mail system processes is to send and retrieve the E-mail message in the best delivery time without any delay or latency. Overview of POP 3? Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is a standard mail protocol used to receive emails from a remote server to a local email client. This protocol is generally used for receiving email over the Internet. POP3 server must be connected to read email from an email account. After connected with the server, all the email messages in an email account are numbered from 1 and the particular account is locked. This specified number identifies email in the given account. The account number is not changed even if the mail is deleted but the account number…

What is HIPERLAN in Wireless Network?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 8, 2018

There has been a remarkable growth in the field of wireless communication standards. Wireless networks are becoming popular as they allow users, the ability to remain connected while on the move.  These wireless standards are characterized based on their range, maximum signal rate, number of channels, channel bandwidth, data protection, frequency band, Quality of Service (QoS) and applications. Overview of HiperLan HIPERLAN is a European (ETSI) standardization initiative for a HIgh PERformance wireless Local Area Network. Radio waves are used instead of a cable as a transmission medium to connect stations. Either, the radio transceiver is mounted to the movable station as an add-on and no base station has to be installed separately, or a base station is needed in addition per room. The stations may be moved during operation-pauses or even become mobile. The maximum data rate for the user depends on the distance of the communicating stations. With short distances (<50 m) and asynchronous transmission a data rate of 20 Mbit/s is achieved, with up to 800 m distance a data rate of 1 Mbit/s are provided. For connection-oriented services, e.g. video-telephony, at least 64 kbit/s are offered. The standard serves to ensure the possible interoperability of different…

What is Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) in Network Security

Cryptographic hash functions cannot be thought of outside mathematics. Cryptographic hash functions are a valuable tool in cryptography. They are applied in many areas of information security to provide protection of the authenticity of messages; data integrity verification which prevents modification of data from going undetected, time stamping and digital signature scheme. The hash functions that are used in various security related applications are called cryptographic hash functions. Secure Hashing Algorithms, also known as SHA, are a family of cryptographic functions designed to keep data secured. Overview of SHA The SHA i.e. Secure Hash Algorithm is basically based on the concept of hash function. The basic idea of a hash function is that it takes a variable length message as input and produces a fixed length message as output which can also be called as hash or message-digest. The trick behind building a good, secured cryptographic hash function is to devise a good compression function in which each input bit affects as many output bits as possible. In computer cryptography, a popular message compress standard is utilized known as Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA). Its enhanced version is called SHA-1. It has the ability to compress a fairly lengthy message and create…

What is Wireless Application protocol in Networking
Networking , Technology & Science / March 31, 2018

In the modern society, information and access is getting more and more important. During the last couple of years, there is a strong tendency towards mobility. This implies an increasing need for being online and having access to information all the time. Browsing on the internet is not restricted anymore to desktop computers, people can now also use their phones or PDA. This is done by WAP, the Wireless Application Protocol. WAP is a protocol stack for wireless communication networks, specified by the WAP forum. Overview of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a system designed to format and filter internet content for use in mobile devices. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a worldwide standard for the delivery and presentation of wireless information to mobile phones and other wireless devices. The idea behind WAP is simple: simplify the delivery of Internet content to wireless devices by delivering a comprehensive, Internet-based, wireless specification. The WAP Forum released the first version of WAP in 1998. Since then, it has been widely adopted by wireless phone manufacturers, wireless carriers, and application developers worldwide. Many industry analysts estimate that 90 percent of mobile phones sold over the next few…

What is Secure Socket layer (SSL) and How it Secure the Network

The boom of internet, web technologies bring the whole world under a single roof. Transferring information through e-ways leads security to be an important aspect to deal with. In recent years, there has been tremendous development in Internet. Right from retrieving information about any subject, you can use Internet for many purposes. But when two parties like client and a server are communicating over the Internet. Secure Socket layer (SSL) is vital to Web security. It provides a strong sense of confidentiality, message integrity, and server authentication to users. Overview of SSL SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer protocol developed by Netscape and is the standard Internet protocol for secure communications. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard security protocol for establishing an encrypted link between a server and a web browser. This link ensures that all data exchanged between the browser and the server remains secure. SSL allows your website and your visitor’s browser to transmit private, sensitive information without the worry of eavesdropping, web forgery, and data tampering. The main role of Secure Socket layer (SSL) is to provide security for Web traffic. Security includes confidentiality, message integrity, and authentication. SSL achieves these elements of security through the…

What is Firewall in Networking

The range of network security is very broad. The security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of concern. Most of the valuable information resides on the network, making network an inevitable entity for survival. Security is optimized by lack of access; connectivity is optimized by complete access. Internet enabled organizations; wireless connectivity and roaming clientage have made network peripheries relatively transparent. With the rapid application and popularization of computer networks, the increase of difficult steps of enterprises and government information digitization, existing enterprise network system structure is increasingly complex. Complex network structure gives a lot of safety concerns; the need for network security is also in rapid increase of the nature of the unprecedented.  Overview of Firewall The rapid development of Internet has brought great convenience to people’s life, but at the same time, the Internet is faced with unprecedented threat. Therefore, how to use effective feasible method to make the network risk within an acceptable range is in the attention of more and more people get. Firewalls are network devices which enforce an organization’s security policy. Firewalls protect a trusted network from an untrusted network by filtering traffic according to a specified security policy. A diverse set…

What is Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
Networking , Technology & Science / March 23, 2018

As the number of users on the World Wide Web increases every day, its use in different areas is also growing. One of the most powerful aspects of the Web is that anybody who has Internet access can browse on the net. This enables sharing the information worldwide. As we traverse the vast frontier of the World Wide Web, we’ll come across documents that make we wonder, “How did they do this?” These documents could consist of, among other things, forms that ask for feedback or registration information, image maps that allow to click on various parts of the image, counters that display the number of users that accessed the document, and utilities that allow to search databases for particular information. In most cases, we’ll find that these effects were achieved using the Common Gateway Interface, a.k.a. CGI. Overview of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) One of the Internet’s worst-kept secrets is that CGI is amazingly simple. That is, it’s trivial in design, and anyone with an iota of programming experience can write rudimentary scripts that work. It’s only when your needs are more demanding that you have to master the more complex workings of the Web. In a way, CGI is easy…

What is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in Network
Networking , Technology & Science / March 22, 2018

Various network applications are requiring increasingly higher bandwidth and generating a heterogeneous mix of network traffic. Existing networks cannot provide the transport facilities to efficiently support a diversity of traffic with various service requirements. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) was designed to be potentially capable of supporting heterogeneous traffic (e.g., voice, video, data) in one transmission and switching fabric technology. It promised to provide greater integration of capabilities and services, more flexible access to the network, and more efficient and economical service. Overview of ATM Internet applications have been written in the context of an IP-based network, and do not take advantage at all of the ATM network capabilities since they are hidden by this connectionless IP layer. The provision of Internet applications directly on top of ATM, described here, removes the overhead and the functional redundancies of a protocol layer, and makes it possible to take advantage of the various service categories offered by ATM networks, while maintaining the interworking with the IP-based network. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as the most promising technology in supporting future broadband multimedia communication services. To accelerate the deployment of ATM technology, the ATM Forum, which is a consortium of service providers and…

What is Digital Identity in Network Security and How it Works

Having an identity and expressing it have been of that importance from the early time. Digital identity related mechanisms are the core of modern systems, networks, and applications security. In an increasingly borderless and digital world, privacy and security cannot be ensured through the construction of walls around sensitive information. Identity is the new frontier of privacy and security, where the very nature of entities is what allows them to complete some transactions but be denied from completing others.  To understand the importance of identity and the criticality of strong identity protocols that protect against cyber-risk and suit the needs of transacting parties, it is essential to understand what identity is, and its role in enabling transactions. Overview of Digital Identity Digital identity is said to be at the heart of many contemporary strategic modernizations and innovations, ranging from crime, misconduct, offence, internal and external security, business models etc. This necessitates disclosing the personal information within ubiquitous environment. A digital identity is an online or networked identity adopted or claimed in cyberspace by an individual, organization or electronic device. These users may also project more than one digital identity through multiple communities. In terms of digital identity management, key areas of concern…