What is Virtual private network and how it works
Networking , Technology & Science / May 18, 2018

VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel. The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not see what’s inside a VPN but also usually not even be able to find out who is using it. Overview of VPN A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network. The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely transmitted. It prevents unauthorized people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to conduct work remotely.  VPN technology is widely used in corporate environments. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is an entity where remote locations are connected over a shared provider environment. It establishes connectivity between a set of geographically dispersed endpoints in a network infrastructure. The endpoints of the VPN are connected using links and increasing demand on the performance of network connectivity…

What is Secure Shell Protocol in Computer Network?

As Internet access becomes increasingly inexpensive and available, it has become a viable replacement for traditional couriers, telephone, and fax, as well as remote dial-up access to a company’s internal computer resources. SSH, the Secure Shell could be a common software based approach to network security. It is a protocol that enables user to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to maneuver files from one machine to a different. Overview of Secure Shell SSH or Secure Shell is a network communication protocol that enables two computers to communicate and share data. An inherent feature of SSH is that the communication between the two computers is encrypted meaning that it is suitable for use on insecure networks. Secure Shell is a protocol that provides authentication, encryption and data integrity to secure network communications. Implementations of Secure Shell offer the following capabilities: a secure command-shell, secure file transfer, and remote access to a variety of TCP/IP applications via a secure tunnel. Secure Shell client and server applications are widely available for most popular operating systems. SSH (Secure Shell) is a protocol for running secure network services over an insecure network. The protocol serves…

What is MD 5 Algorithm in Network Security?

Overview of MD5 Algorithm Hash algorithms are important components in many cryptographic applications and security protocol suites. MD5 which stands for Message Digest algorithm 5 is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The idea behind this algorithm is to take up a random data (text or binary) as an input and generate a fixed size “hash value” as the output. The input data can be of any size or length, but the output “hash value” size is always fixed. MD5 was designed by well-known cryptographer Ronald Rivest in 1991. In 2004, some serious flaws were found in MD5. The complete implications of these flaws has yet to be determined. The MD5 algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm that takes an input of arbitrary length and produces a message digest that is 128 bits long. The digest is sometimes also called the “hash” or “fingerprint” of the input. MD5 is used in many situations where a potentially long message needs to be processed and/or compared quickly. The most common application is the creation and verification of digital signatures. Properties of a Message-Digest Algorithm When people plan to design a message-digest algorithm, they try to make the algorithm satisfy the following properties: It…

What is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 29, 2018

Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) was originally designed for a smaller community of users which was assumed to be well behaved and trust worthy. As such no heed was paid towards incorporating security protocols in it. But with its growth, this trust was breached, owing to lack of adequate security mechanism in it. Email is emerging as the one of the most valuable service in internet today. Most of the internet systems use SMTP as a method to transfer mail from one user to another. Description about SMTP SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol allows transmitting electronic mail over the Internet or any other network. The protocol itself is designed on a character basis. Thus the entire transfer of a mail can be exanimated by a human being without having to decode first the data. This is the reason why mails can be send without major problem using a simple Telnet application. The entire process of sending a mail is describe here using a Telnet application as example base. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)…

What is Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
Networking , Technology & Science / April 28, 2018

In recent years with the rapid development of the wireless internet and mobile communication systems, the use of notebook computers, PDAs and portable systems is gradually increasing and has become popular. And most of the users may want to access the internet from anywhere in the world. However, when these mobile hosts move from one network to another, users have to change system configuration, including host IP address, default gateway, and name servers. In order to support the automatic configuration changes on these hosts, several technologies such as dynamic host configuration mechanisms or mobility support in the IP layer have been developed. What is DHCP? The DHCP is an internet protocol that lets network administrators centrally manage and automate the assignment of IP addresses in an organization’s network. Without the DHCP, the IP address must be entered manually at each host in an organization and a new IP address must be entered each time a host moves to a new location on the network. DHCP refers to Dynamic Host Control Protocol. DHCP is responsible for dynamically assigning IP addresses to all the computers in a network immediately after the computer starts. DHCP (Server) is used to automatically allocate IP addresses…

What is Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
Networking , Technology & Science / April 27, 2018

Routing is an important function in any network; it be wired or wireless. Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one intermediate node within the internetwork is encountered. Traditional wireless communication networks require a fixed infrastructure over which communication takes place. Therefore, considerable resources and effort are required to set up such networks, even before they can actually be used. Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic Overview of AODV In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad-hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. An Ad-hoc routing protocol is a convention or standard that controls how nodes come to agree which way to route packets between computing devices in a MANET. AODV is a very simple, efficient, and effective routing protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks which do not have…

What is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in Computer Network?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 26, 2018

Since the invention of the telephone, real time communication networks have mostly been built using closed circuit switched network infrastructures, e.g. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). With the advent and the increasing popularity of the packet-switched Internet data network, providers are seeking ways to combine both communication and data networks on an all-IP network basis. Session Initiation Protocol is a core protocol for coming real time communication networks. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most common protocols used in VoIP technology. It is an application layer protocol that works in conjunction with other application layer protocols to control multimedia communication sessions over the Internet. Overview of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions (conferences). A session is considered as an exchange of data between an association of participants, such as Internet telephony calls and video telephony. SIP is able to support multicast conferences with more than two participants. Participants can be invited to already existing sessions. Media can be added to (and removed from) an existing session. SIP can be used to control Internet multimedia conferences, Internet telephone calls and multimedia distribution, in…

What is Post office protocol 3 (POP3)?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 21, 2018

Electronic mail is the core of modern communications. People rely on email to conduct their business and stay in touch with families. The ubiquity of an email availability is one of the strengths of the internet whose phenomenal growth and popularity are also due to the popularity of an email. E-mail system has become the most popular computer based method used to send and receive E-mail messages between the network clients inside or outside the local network. The most important point in E-mail system processes is to send and retrieve the E-mail message in the best delivery time without any delay or latency. Overview of POP 3? Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is a standard mail protocol used to receive emails from a remote server to a local email client. This protocol is generally used for receiving email over the Internet. POP3 server must be connected to read email from an email account. After connected with the server, all the email messages in an email account are numbered from 1 and the particular account is locked. This specified number identifies email in the given account. The account number is not changed even if the mail is deleted but the account number…

What is HIPERLAN in Wireless Network?
Networking , Technology & Science / April 8, 2018

There has been a remarkable growth in the field of wireless communication standards. Wireless networks are becoming popular as they allow users, the ability to remain connected while on the move.  These wireless standards are characterized based on their range, maximum signal rate, number of channels, channel bandwidth, data protection, frequency band, Quality of Service (QoS) and applications. Overview of HiperLan HIPERLAN is a European (ETSI) standardization initiative for a HIgh PERformance wireless Local Area Network. Radio waves are used instead of a cable as a transmission medium to connect stations. Either, the radio transceiver is mounted to the movable station as an add-on and no base station has to be installed separately, or a base station is needed in addition per room. The stations may be moved during operation-pauses or even become mobile. The maximum data rate for the user depends on the distance of the communicating stations. With short distances (<50 m) and asynchronous transmission a data rate of 20 Mbit/s is achieved, with up to 800 m distance a data rate of 1 Mbit/s are provided. For connection-oriented services, e.g. video-telephony, at least 64 kbit/s are offered. The standard serves to ensure the possible interoperability of different…

What is Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) in Network Security

Cryptographic hash functions cannot be thought of outside mathematics. Cryptographic hash functions are a valuable tool in cryptography. They are applied in many areas of information security to provide protection of the authenticity of messages; data integrity verification which prevents modification of data from going undetected, time stamping and digital signature scheme. The hash functions that are used in various security related applications are called cryptographic hash functions. Secure Hashing Algorithms, also known as SHA, are a family of cryptographic functions designed to keep data secured. Overview of SHA The SHA i.e. Secure Hash Algorithm is basically based on the concept of hash function. The basic idea of a hash function is that it takes a variable length message as input and produces a fixed length message as output which can also be called as hash or message-digest. The trick behind building a good, secured cryptographic hash function is to devise a good compression function in which each input bit affects as many output bits as possible. In computer cryptography, a popular message compress standard is utilized known as Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA). Its enhanced version is called SHA-1. It has the ability to compress a fairly lengthy message and create…

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