What is Wireless Application protocol in Networking
/ March 31, 2018

In the modern society, information and access is getting more and more important. During the last couple of years, there is a strong tendency towards mobility. This implies an increasing need for being online and having access to information all the time. Browsing on the internet is not restricted anymore to desktop computers, people can now also use their phones or PDA. This is done by WAP, the Wireless Application Protocol. WAP is a protocol stack for wireless communication networks, specified by the WAP forum. Overview of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a system designed to format and filter internet content for use in mobile devices. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a worldwide standard for the delivery and presentation of wireless information to mobile phones and other wireless devices. The idea behind WAP is simple: simplify the delivery of Internet content to wireless devices by delivering a comprehensive, Internet-based, wireless specification. The WAP Forum released the first version of WAP in 1998. Since then, it has been widely adopted by wireless phone manufacturers, wireless carriers, and application developers worldwide. Many industry analysts estimate that 90 percent of mobile phones sold over the next few…

What is Secure Socket layer (SSL) and How it Secure the Network
/ March 27, 2018

The boom of internet, web technologies bring the whole world under a single roof. Transferring information through e-ways leads security to be an important aspect to deal with. In recent years, there has been tremendous development in Internet. Right from retrieving information about any subject, you can use Internet for many purposes. But when two parties like client and a server are communicating over the Internet. Secure Socket layer (SSL) is vital to Web security. It provides a strong sense of confidentiality, message integrity, and server authentication to users. Overview of SSL SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer protocol developed by Netscape and is the standard Internet protocol for secure communications. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard security protocol for establishing an encrypted link between a server and a web browser. This link ensures that all data exchanged between the browser and the server remains secure. SSL allows your website and your visitor’s browser to transmit private, sensitive information without the worry of eavesdropping, web forgery, and data tampering. The main role of Secure Socket layer (SSL) is to provide security for Web traffic. Security includes confidentiality, message integrity, and authentication. SSL achieves these elements of security through the…

What is Firewall in Networking
/ March 24, 2018

The range of network security is very broad. The security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of concern. Most of the valuable information resides on the network, making network an inevitable entity for survival. Security is optimized by lack of access; connectivity is optimized by complete access. Internet enabled organizations; wireless connectivity and roaming clientage have made network peripheries relatively transparent. With the rapid application and popularization of computer networks, the increase of difficult steps of enterprises and government information digitization, existing enterprise network system structure is increasingly complex. Complex network structure gives a lot of safety concerns; the need for network security is also in rapid increase of the nature of the unprecedented.  Overview of Firewall The rapid development of Internet has brought great convenience to people’s life, but at the same time, the Internet is faced with unprecedented threat. Therefore, how to use effective feasible method to make the network risk within an acceptable range is in the attention of more and more people get. Firewalls are network devices which enforce an organization’s security policy. Firewalls protect a trusted network from an untrusted network by filtering traffic according to a specified security policy. A diverse set…

What is Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
/ March 23, 2018

As the number of users on the World Wide Web increases every day, its use in different areas is also growing. One of the most powerful aspects of the Web is that anybody who has Internet access can browse on the net. This enables sharing the information worldwide. As we traverse the vast frontier of the World Wide Web, we’ll come across documents that make we wonder, “How did they do this?” These documents could consist of, among other things, forms that ask for feedback or registration information, image maps that allow to click on various parts of the image, counters that display the number of users that accessed the document, and utilities that allow to search databases for particular information. In most cases, we’ll find that these effects were achieved using the Common Gateway Interface, a.k.a. CGI. Overview of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) One of the Internet’s worst-kept secrets is that CGI is amazingly simple. That is, it’s trivial in design, and anyone with an iota of programming experience can write rudimentary scripts that work. It’s only when your needs are more demanding that you have to master the more complex workings of the Web. In a way, CGI is easy…

What is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in Network
/ March 22, 2018

Various network applications are requiring increasingly higher bandwidth and generating a heterogeneous mix of network traffic. Existing networks cannot provide the transport facilities to efficiently support a diversity of traffic with various service requirements. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) was designed to be potentially capable of supporting heterogeneous traffic (e.g., voice, video, data) in one transmission and switching fabric technology. It promised to provide greater integration of capabilities and services, more flexible access to the network, and more efficient and economical service. Overview of ATM Internet applications have been written in the context of an IP-based network, and do not take advantage at all of the ATM network capabilities since they are hidden by this connectionless IP layer. The provision of Internet applications directly on top of ATM, described here, removes the overhead and the functional redundancies of a protocol layer, and makes it possible to take advantage of the various service categories offered by ATM networks, while maintaining the interworking with the IP-based network. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as the most promising technology in supporting future broadband multimedia communication services. To accelerate the deployment of ATM technology, the ATM Forum, which is a consortium of service providers and…

What is Digital Identity in Network Security and How it Works
/ March 21, 2018

Having an identity and expressing it have been of that importance from the early time. Digital identity related mechanisms are the core of modern systems, networks, and applications security. In an increasingly borderless and digital world, privacy and security cannot be ensured through the construction of walls around sensitive information. Identity is the new frontier of privacy and security, where the very nature of entities is what allows them to complete some transactions but be denied from completing others.  To understand the importance of identity and the criticality of strong identity protocols that protect against cyber-risk and suit the needs of transacting parties, it is essential to understand what identity is, and its role in enabling transactions. Overview of Digital Identity Digital identity is said to be at the heart of many contemporary strategic modernizations and innovations, ranging from crime, misconduct, offence, internal and external security, business models etc. This necessitates disclosing the personal information within ubiquitous environment. A digital identity is an online or networked identity adopted or claimed in cyberspace by an individual, organization or electronic device. These users may also project more than one digital identity through multiple communities. In terms of digital identity management, key areas of concern…

What is Blockchain Technology And How It Is Useful For Us
/ March 18, 2018

Blockchain is being termed as the fifth disruptive innovation in computing. Blockchain technology or the distributed, secure ledger technology has gained much attention in recent years. This article presents blockchain technology literature and its applications. A very significant plus of the blockchain technology is that it solves two of the most dreaded problems of currency based transactions, which have so long necessitated the requirement of a third party to validate the transactions. Blockchain Overview Blockchain technology is a sophisticated, interesting, and emerging technology. It provides a reliable way of confirming the party submitting a record to the blockchain, the time and date of its submission, and the contents of the record at the time of submission, eliminating the need for third-party intermediaries in certain situations. However, it is important to consider that blockchain technology does not verify or address the reliability or the accuracy of the contents, and additionally blockchain technology provides no storage for records, but instead the hashes thereof A blockchain is an electronic ledger of digital records, events, or transactions that are cryptographically hashed, authenticated, and maintained through a “distributed” or “shared” network of participants using a group consensus protocol. Much like a checkbook is a ledger…

What is Domain Name System (DNS) in Networking
/ March 8, 2018

As a critical component of the Internet’s infrastructure, the Domain Name System (DNS) is the translation system that turns an Internet host name (domain name) into the unique series of numbers which constitute an Internet Protocol (IP) address for each specific domain name. The DNS plays a critical role in supporting the Internet infrastructure by providing a distributed and fairly robust mechanism that resolves Internet host names into IP addresses and IP addresses back into host names. The DNS is a critical application for the reliable and trustworthy operation of the Internet. Domain Name System (DNS) enables you to use hierarchical, friendly names to easily locate computers and other resources on an IP network. Overview of Domain Name System (DNS) To send a packet to a remote host over the internet, knowledge of the IP address of that specific host is necessary, similar to the working of the telephone network where a phone number is necessary to reach a specific person. However, remembering the IP addresses of all hosts somebody might want to communicate with is rather difficult. Furthermore one probably want to reach a certain remote application, e.g. a website, regardless of the physical machine this application is running…

What is Sybil Attack in Wireless Networks
/ March 7, 2018

Wireless networking is inherently insecure. Wireless technologies, in the simplest sense, enable one or more devices to communicate without physical connections without requiring network or peripheral cabling. Security in computer world determines the ability of the system to manage, protect and distribute sensitive information. An ever-existing concern is the lack of security due to the very fact that the technology is wireless and is vulnerable to security threats & attacks. Many security mechanisms are based on specific assumptions of identity and are vulnerable to attacks when these assumptions are violated. Overview of Sybil Attack The Sybil attack in computer security is an attack wherein a reputation system is subverted by forging identities in peer-to-peer networks. A Sybil attack is one in which a malicious node on a network illegitimately claims to be several different nodes simultaneously. If an entity on a network does not have physical knowledge of the other entities, it will perceive them purely as informational abstractions called identities. . By illegitimately infusing false or biased information via the pseudonymous identities, an adversary can mislead a system into making decisions benefiting herself The term Sybil attack is to denote an attack where the attacker (Sybil node) tries to…

What is Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
/ February 23, 2018

Today is the era of information technology. Nowadays online shopping increase in market, use of E-payment gives more important benefits to merchants as well as customers. All online transactions must pass through a Payment Gateway to be processed. In effect, Payment Gateways act as a bridge between the merchant’s website and the financial institutions that process the transaction. Nowadays the payment approaches via the internet and the network has been growing at a furious pace. In this way, the variety of the electronic payment systems consists of a numerous types to achieve a strong level of the security. Electronic payment is the very important step of the electronic business system, and its security must be ensured. Overview of Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) The Secure Electronic Transaction protocol also known as SET is a method for providing secure credit card transactions on the Internet. The SET protocol is designed to operate both in real time, as on the World Wide Web, and in a store-and-forward environment, such as e-mail. Furthermore, as an open standard, SET is designed to allow consumers, merchants, and banking software companies to independently develop software for their respective clienteles and to have them interoperate successfully. However, in…

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