LI-FI (Light Fidelity): Future of Data Transmission
/ August 8, 2018

Android : The Flexible Operating System
/ August 4, 2018

Android is leading the smartphone market as a champion with the leadership rate of 84 %, over 3.3 billion smartphones are running on the Android operating system because of its efficiency and performance.   Android : It is an open source operating system which is made on Linux-kernel. Today Android is featured in almost 70% of smart electronics globally but the primary sector that has hooked with this operating system is the smartphone market. On average, almost every fourth of the smartphone is running on the Android operating system. And because it is open source, it has a massive community of developers across the globe.   The First Boot: The journey of this revolutionary operating system has begun in October 2003 [1] by Andy Rubin and his three teammates. Rubin described this project as “tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner’s location and preferences” [1]. Later on, one of the members of Google estimated the potential of the futuristic operating system because it has the efficiency to become a revolutionary OS and they desired to buy it but the first meeting didn’t work well, but later on July 2005 Google acquired the android at the…

Desi E-commerce: Transformation from local store to online business
/ August 2, 2018

The Indian E-Commerce market has grown very well since its beginning and all set to uplift all the local market to the online market. The time has gone when a user needs to wander through streets for their desired products, now all this can be done by sitting at home with their electronic devices. Credits: AxonLabs   What is E-Commerce: Credits: Direct Packaging Solutions   E-commerce is an online business and marketing. Let’s keep it simple, it is putting your commercial business via electronic sources such as world wide web. Nowadays there are many online shopping websites available and these sites can be accessed by the user as per their preferences. The online market has grown so well that the variety in E-commerce sites is tremendous. Today we have a range from a local street store to the original genuine merchandises. The Initial Step: Credits: SimiplyNotes In 1989 the access to the internet was granted publicly and a new path toward many successful ideas has opened. E-commerce became possible in 1991 when the Internet was opened to commercial use. Since that date, thousands of businesses have taken up residence at websites [1].   How it works: Credits: Dazeinfo Electronic commerce operates in…

What is Token Ring in Networking?
/ July 22, 2018

The robustness of token ring has won it a place in the heart of many large enterprise network The communication capabilities provided by local-area networks (LANs) are affected, to a large extent, by the performance of the medium access control protocol. In geographically concentrated areas, communication subnetworks usually realize a bus or ring topology. The IEEE 802 standardization body has established e.g. three standards for LAN medium access control protocols: CSMA/CD, token bus and token ring. The term “token ring” is used to describe a computer network configuration where each computer is linked to the computer next to it to form a closed ring. Basic Overview of Token Ring Token ring or IEEE 802.5 is a network where all computers are connected in a circular fashion. The term token is used to describe a segment of information that is sent through that circle; when a computer on the network can decode that token, it receives data. A token ring network is a local area network (LAN) topology where nodes/stations are arranged in a ring topology. Data passes sequentially between nodes on the network until it returns to the source station. To prevent congestion and collision, a token ring topology uses a token to…

What is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?
/ July 14, 2018

GSM was the most successful second generation cellular technology, but the need for higher data rates spawned new developments to enable data to be transferred at much higher rates. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an enhancement to the existing GSM network infrastructure and provides a connectionless packet data service. The same cellular base-stations that support voice calls are used to support GPRS and as a consequence GPRS can be used wherever it is possible to make a voice call. GPRS roaming agreements exist with a large number of countries and this means users can use GPRS devices whilst abroad. GPRS is based on internet Protocols (IP) and enables users to utilize a wide range of applications – email and internet and/or intranet resources for instance. With throughput rates of up to 40 Kbit/s, users have a similar access speed to a dial-up modem, but with the convenience of being able to connect from anywhere. Basic Overview of GPRS GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a service within the GSM network, just like the two most popular services SMS and voice connections. GPRS is used for transmitting data in the GSM network in from of packets. The connection to…

What is Packet Sniffing in Networking?
/ July 13, 2018

Packets in computer communications can be defined as a quantity of data of limited size. In Internet all traffic travels in the form of packets, the entire file downloads, Web page retrievals, email, all these Internet communications always occur in the form of packets. In the internet, packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet mode in computer network Packets are the base of all data sent on the internet, yet they are often used insecurely. Tampering with live packets and the process it takes in order to alter packets traveling along the network are getting easier. Packet sniffing is commonly described as monitoring packets as they go across a network. Packet sniffers are typically software based, but can be hardware pieces installed directly along the network. Sniffers can go beyond network hosts that are seen in local area networks (LAN) that only handle data that is sent specifically to them. Basics Overview of Packet Sniffing Packet sniffing is the act of capturing packets of data flowing across a computer network. The software or device used to do this is called a packet sniffer. Packet sniffing is to computer networks what wiretapping is to a telephone network. …

What is Denial of Service (DoS) Attack in Networking?
/ July 5, 2018

Network Security deals with all aspects related to protection of sensitive information on the network. It covers various mechanisms to provide fundamental security for data in communication systems. Security in computer network determines the ability of administration to manage, protect and distribute sensitive information. Data Security was found many years before the advent of wireless communication due to mankind’s need to send information without exposing its content to others. Every security system must provide a list of security functions. That can assure secrecy of the system. These functions are usually referred to as goals of security system. There are a number of different kinds of attacks are exist in network security that impact the system performance and security protocols. Among them a serious kind of attack namely Denial of Service (DoS) attack is described. Basic Description about denial of service (DoS) Attack Denial of Service attacks is undoubtedly a very serious problem in the Internet, whose impact has been well demonstrated in the computer network literature. The main aim of Denial of Service is the disruption of services by attempting to limit access to a machine or service instead of subverting the service itself. This kind of attack aims at…

What is Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) in Networking?
/ June 14, 2018

Understanding networking is a fundamental part of configuring complex environments on the internet. This has implications when trying to communicate between servers efficiently, developing secure network policies, and keeping your nodes organized. CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) was introduced in 1993 replacing the previous generation of IP address syntax – classful networks. CIDR allowed for more efficient use of IPv4 address space and prefix aggregation, known as route summarization or supernetting. Basic Overview of CIDR A system called Classless Inter-Domain Routing, or CIDR, was developed as an alternative to traditional subnetting. The idea is that we can add a specification in the IP address itself as to the number of significant bits that make up the routing or networking portion. Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) is a set of Internet protocol (IP) standards that is used to create unique identifiers for networks and individual devices. The IP addresses allow particular information packets to be sent to specific computers. Shortly after the introduction of CIDR, technicians found it difficult to track and label IP addresses, so a notation system was developed to make the process more efficient and standardized. That system is known as CIDR notation. To illustrate the problems with the class…

/ June 12, 2018

A computer can act on the behalf of other computers to request content from the Internet or an intranet. Proxy Server is placed between a user’s machine and the Internet. It can act as a firewall to provide protection and as a cache area to speed up Web page display. It is a computer that sits between a client computer and the Internet, and provides indirect network services to a client. It may reside on the user’s local computer, or at various points between the user’s computer and destination servers on the Internet. That intercepts all client requests, and provides responses from its cache or forwards the request to the real server. A client computer is connected to the proxy, which acknowledges client requests by providing the requested resource/data from either a specified server or the local cache memory. Client requests include files or any other resources available on various servers. Basic Overview of Proxy Server Basically proxy server plays an intermediary between the client computer and the server computer. The clients usually take the help of proxy for requesting any files, any web pages or any other resources. The proxy acts as an identification shield between the server and…

What is Network Time Protocol (NTP) in networking?
/ June 7, 2018

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is very important for modern networks. If the time across network devices is not accurate, this can have a direct impact on network security and network management, just to name two. The key to accurate time in the network is to have your devices receive the correct time from an atomic clock, and then synchronize this correct time across all of the devices. Network Time Protocol ensures this process is automated and secure. This article serves as your introduction to this critical network function. NTP is a protocol designed to synchronize the clocks of computers over a network. Network Time Protocol (NTP) provides a mechanism to synchronize time throughout the network. An NTP device will form an association with NTP devices closer to the time source. NTP devices use a special measurement, called a stratum, to determine how far they are away from the time source. Basic Overview of the NTP NTP stands for Network Time Protocol, and it is an Internet protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers to sometime reference. NTP is an Internet standard protocol originally developed by Professor David L. Mills at the University of Delaware. The NTP system is based…

Insert math as
$${}$$