Cloud Storage and Data De-Duplication

Rendering efficient storage and security for all data is very important for cloud. With the rapidly increasing amounts of data produced worldwide, networked and multi-user storage systems are becoming very popular. However, concerns over data security still prevent many users from migrating data to remote storage. Data deduplication refers to a technique for eliminating redundant data in a data set. In the process of deduplication, extra copies of the same data are deleted, leaving only one copy to be stored. Data is analysed to identify duplicate byte patterns to ensure the single instance is indeed the single file. Then, duplicates are replaced with a reference that points to the stored chunk. Data deduplication Data deduplication is a technique to reduce storage space. By identifying redundant data using hash values to compare data chunks, storing only one copy, and creating logical pointers to other copies instead of storing other actual copies of the redundant data. Deduplication reduces data volume so disk space and network bandwidth can be reduced which reduce costs and energy consumption for running storage systems Figure 1: Data de-duplication View Data deduplication is a technique whose objective is to improve storage efficiency. With the aim to reduce storage…

What is ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) Algorithm

There are even increasing efforts in searching and developing algorithms that can find solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. In this way, the Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic takes inspiration from biology and proposes different versions of still more efficient algorithms. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO): Overview Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a paradigm for designing metaheuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. The essential trait of ACO algorithms is the combination of a priori information about the structure of a promising solution with a posteriori information about the structure of previously obtained good solutions. ACO is a class of algorithms, whose first member, called Ant System, was initially proposed by Colorni, Dorigo and Maniezzo The main underlying idea, loosely inspired by the behavior of real ants, is that of a parallel search over several constructive computational threads based on local problem data and on a dynamic memory structure containing information on the quality of previously obtained result. The collective behavior emerging from the interaction of the different search threads has proved effective in solving combinatorial optimization (CO) problems. More specifically, we can say that “Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a population-based, general search technique for the solution of difficult combinatorial problems which is…

introduction of Regression Analysis

Extracting patterns and models of interest from large databases is attracting much attention in a variety of disciplines. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and data mining are areas of common interest to researchers in machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, artificial intelligence, and high performance computing. Regression General Overview Regression is a data mining function that predicts a number. Profit, sales, mortgage rates, house values, square footage, temperature, or distance could all be predicted using regression techniques. For example, a regression model could be used to predict the value of a data warehouse based on web-marketing, number of data entries, size, and other factors. A regression task begins with a data set in which the target values are known. For example, a regression model that predicts data warehouse values could be developed based on observed data for many data warehouses over a period of time. In addition to the value, the data might track the age of the data warehouse, size and number of clusters and so on. Data warehouse value would be the target, the other attributes would be the predictors, and the data for each data warehouse would constitute a case. In the Regression is a data mining function…

Social Network Analysis

Network analysis is still a growing field with a great deal of opportunity for new and transformative contributions. The term social network refers to the articulation of a social relationship, official or achieved, among individuals, families, households, villages, communities, regions, and so on. Each of them can play dual roles, acting both as a unit or node of a social network as well as a social actor Social Network Analysis : Definition Social network theory views a network as a group of actors who are connected by a set of relationships. Social networks develop when actors meet and form some kind of relation between each other. These can be of an informal as well as of a formal nature. Hereby actors are often people, but can also be nations, organizations, objects etc. Social Network Analysis (SNA) focuses on patterns of relations between these actors. It seeks to describe networks of relations as fully as possible. This includes teasing out the prominent patterns in such networks, tracing the flow of information through them, and discovering what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. It can therefore be used to study network patterns of organizations, ideas, and people that connected…

Introduction of Human Computer Interaction

Utilizing computers had always begged the question of interfacing. The methods by which human has been interacting with computers has travelled a long way. The journey still continues and new designs of technologies and systems appear more and more every day and the research in this area has been growing very fast in the last few decades. The growth in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) field has not only been in quality of interaction, it has also experienced different branching in its history. Instead of designing regular interfaces, the different research branches have had different focus on the concepts of multimodality rather than unimodality, intelligent adaptive interfaces rather than command/action based ones, and finally active rather than passive interfaces. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) : Overview Human Computer Interaction (HCI) involves the planning and design of the interaction between users and computers. In these days, smaller devices are used to improve technology. The most important advantages of computer vision is its freedom. The user can interact with the computer without wires and manipulating intermediary devices. Recently, User-Interfaces are used to capture the motion of our hands. The researchers developed techniques to track the movements of hand/fingers through the web cam to establish an interaction…

An Introduction of Semantic Web

The current WWW has a huge amount of data that is often unstructured and usually only human understandable. The Semantic Web aims to address this problem by providing machine interpretable semantics to provide greater machine support for the user. Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation. The semantic web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information enabling software products to mediate between user needs and the information source available. Figure 1: Semantic Web Structure The Internet contains more than 10 billion static pages of information to be used by more than 1000 million users spread over the world. It is difficult to access & maintain this enormous amount of data using natural languages. It is rather difficult to bridge the gap between the available information and the techniques used for accessing it. The web content is increasing at very faster rate and difficult for search engines to cope up with it despite new techniques of searching. The Semantic Web’s establishes machine understandable Web resources. Researchers in this area plan to accomplish this by creating ontology and logic mechanisms and replacing HTML…

Community Detection : Unsupervised Learning

Advances in technology and computation have provided the possibility of collecting and mining a massive amount of real-world data. Mining such “big data” allows us to understand the structure and the function of real systems and to find unknown and interesting patterns. This section provides the brief overview of the community structure. Introduction of Community Detection In the actual interconnected world, and the rising of online social networks the graph mining and the community detection become completely up-to-date. Understanding the formation and evolution of communities is a long-standing research topic in sociology in part because of its fundamental connections with the studies of urban development, criminology, social marketing, and several other areas. With increasing popularity of online social network services like Facebook, the study of community structures assumes more significance. Identifying and detecting communities are not only of particular importance but have immediate applications. For instance, for effective online marketing, such as placing online ads or deploying viral marketing strategies [10], identifying communities in social network could often lead to more accurate targeting and better marketing results. Albeit online user profiles or other semantic information is helpful to discover user segments this kind of information is often at a coarse-grained level…

What is Distributed Database

A distributed database is a database in which portions of the database are stored in multiple physical locations and processing is distributed among multiple database nodes. Distributed databases can be homogenous or heterogeneous. In a homogenous distributed database system, all the physical locations have the same underlying hardware and run the same operating systems and database applications. In a heterogeneous distributed database, the hardware, operating systems or database applications may be different at each of the locations. Distributed Database: Overview A distributed database is a database distributed between several sites. The reasons for the data distribution may include the inherent distributed nature of the data or performance reasons. In a distributed database the data at each site is not necessarily an independent entity, but can be rather related to the data stored on the other sites.  A distributed database (DDB) is a collection of multiple, logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network. A distributed database management system (DDBMS) is the software that manages the DDB, and provides an access mechanism that makes this distribution transparent to the user. Distributed database system (DDBS) is the integration of DDB and DDBMS. This integration is achieved through the merging the database and…

What is Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing is a technology that allows transmission of data, voice and video via a computer or any other wireless enabled device without having to be connected to a fixed physical link. Mobile computing (or ubiquitous computing as it is sometimes called) is the use of computers in a non-static environment. This use may range from using notebook-type computers away from one’s office or home to the use of handheld, palmtop-type PDA-like devices to perform both simple and complex computing tasks. Mobile Computing: General Mobile device has become essential part of human life. Apart from call and receive functions, user can access many function in his/her mobile. A user wants everything on his/her mobile device for the ease of work. Some people use tablets instead of laptop or desktop. Despite increasing usage of mobile computing, exploiting its full potential is difficult due to its inherent problems such as resource scarcity, frequent disconnections, and mobility. Mobile cloud computing can address these problems by executing mobile applications on resource providers external to the mobile device. Mobile phones are set to become the universal interface to online services and cloud computing applications. However, using them for this purpose today is limited to two…

What is Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Internet is a global public network. With the growth of the Internet and its potential, there has been subsequent change in business model of organizations across the world. More and more people are getting connected to the Internet every day to take advantage of the new business model popularly known as e-Business. Internetwork connectivity has therefore become very critical aspect of today’s e-business. “Intrusion is an unauthorized access to the system with the intent of doing theft of information or harms the system. The act of detecting intrusions, monitoring the incidents occurring in the computer system, the suspicious or unusual activities, taking place in the system, which can be the possible attack, is known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS)” If the computer is left unattended, any person can attempt to access and misuse the system. The problem is, however, far greater if the computer is connected to a network, particularly the Internet. Any user from around the world can reach the computer remotely (to some capacity) and may attempt to access private/confidential information or to launch some form of attack to bring the system to a halt or cease to function effectively. Overview The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in a…

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