What is Blockchain Technology And How It Is Useful For Us

Blockchain is being termed as the fifth disruptive innovation in computing. Blockchain technology or the distributed, secure ledger technology has gained much attention in recent years. This article presents blockchain technology literature and its applications. A very significant plus of the blockchain technology is that it solves two of the most dreaded problems of currency based transactions, which have so long necessitated the requirement of a third party to validate the transactions. Blockchain Overview Blockchain technology is a sophisticated, interesting, and emerging technology. It provides a reliable way of confirming the party submitting a record to the blockchain, the time and date of its submission, and the contents of the record at the time of submission, eliminating the need for third-party intermediaries in certain situations. However, it is important to consider that blockchain technology does not verify or address the reliability or the accuracy of the contents, and additionally blockchain technology provides no storage for records, but instead the hashes thereof A blockchain is an electronic ledger of digital records, events, or transactions that are cryptographically hashed, authenticated, and maintained through a “distributed” or “shared” network of participants using a group consensus protocol. Much like a checkbook is a ledger…

Multi Agent System in Artificial Intelligence

Multi-agent systems are made up of multiple interacting intelligent agents—computational entities to some degree autonomous and able to cooperate, compete, communicate, act flexibly, and exercise control over their behavior within the frame of their objectives. They are the enabling technology for a wide range of advanced applications relying on distributed and parallel processing of data, information, and knowledge relevant in domains ranging from industrial manufacturing to e-commerce to health care. What is Multi-agent system? In artificial intelligence research, agent-based systems technology has been hailed as a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing software systems. Agents are sophisticated computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of their users, across open and distributed environments, to solve a growing number of complex problems. Increasingly, however, applications require multiple agents that can work together. A multi-agent system (MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM) is a loosely coupled network of software agents that interact to solve problems that are beyond the individual capacities or knowledge of each problem solver. Multi-agent system can be define by the following definition: “A multi-agent system is a loosely coupled network of problem-solving entities (agents) that work together to find answers to problems that are beyond the individual capabilities or knowledge of each…

Dynamic Energy Management for Smart Grid

Against a backdrop of increasing energy costs and tightening constraints on resource availability, the call for greater optimization and highly efficient induction heating has grown louder and louder. Innovative and intelligent strategies are now available to increase energy efficiency and production flexibility while simultaneously streamlining operations and reducing spare part costs. Together with laborsaving automation, improved energy efficiency offers the most meaningful productivity gains. Overview of Energy Management Dynamic Energy Management is an innovative approach to managing load at the demand-side. It incorporates the conventional energy use management principles represented in demand-side management, demand response, and distributed energy resource programs and merges them in an integrated framework that simultaneously addresses permanent energy savings, permanent demand reductions, and temporary peak load reductions. This is accomplished through a system comprising smart end-use devices and distributed energy resources with highly advanced controls and communications capabilities that enable dynamic management of the system as a whole. The components build upon each other and interact with one another to contribute to an infrastructure that is dynamic, fully-integrated, highly energy efficient, automated, and capable of learning. These components work in unison to optimize operation of the integrated system based on consumer requirements, utility constraints, available incentives, and…

Introduction of Web Services

Web services can be published and can be accessed with internet and business intranets for developing scattered applications. It can be defined as the model for software system and designed to maintain interoperable communication. The capacity to select and compose the inter-organizational and mixed services at runtime on the web is the important issue to be considered in web service applications. With the help of a single web service, we cannot satisfy both the functional and non-functional requirements of the user, so we need to mix a set of composite already existing web services to satisfy the user needs. Definition of Web Services “A web service is a software system that supports interoperable machine to machine interaction over the network. It can be any kind of service provided on the web that can exchange data between applications. In simple terms, it is any program that is callable by another program across the web using standard protocols”. OR, “A Web service is a software system identified by a URI, whose public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML. Its definition can be discovered by other software systems. These systems may then interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed…

Understanding of Distributed System

Networks of computers are everywhere. The Internet is one, as are the many networks of which it is composed. Mobile phone networks, corporate networks, factory networks, campus networks, home networks, in-car networks – all of these, both separately and in combination, share the essential characteristics that make them relevant subjects for study under the heading distributed systems. Distributed computing deals with all forms of computing, information access, and information exchange across multiple processing platforms connected by computer networks. Overview of Distributed System Over the past two decades, advancements in microelectronic technology have resulted in the availability of fast, inexpensive processors, and advancements in communication technology have resulted in the availability of cost effective and highly efficient computer networks. The net result of the advancements in these two technologies is that the price performance ratio has now changed to favor the use of interconnected multiple processors in place of a single, high-speed processor. Distributed systems form a rapidly changing field of computer science. A distributed computer system consists of multiple software components that are on multiple computers, but run as a single system. The computers that are in a distributed system can be physically close together and connected by a local network,…

Introduction of Brain Computer Interface

As the power of modern computers grows alongside our understanding of the human brain, we move ever closer to making some pretty spectacular science fiction into reality. Imagine transmitting signals directly to someone’s brain that would allow them to see, hear or feel specific sensory inputs. Consider the potential to manipulate computers or machinery with nothing more than a thought. It isn’t about convenience — for severely disabled people, development of a brain-computer interface (BCI) could be the most important technological breakthrough in decades. In this article, we’ll learn all about how BCIs work, their limitations and where they could be headed in the future. what is Brain Computer Interface Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems. Its contributions in medical fields range from prevention to neuronal rehabilitation for serious injuries. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is a powerful communication tool between users and systems. It does not require any external devices or muscle intervention to issue commands and complete the interaction Definition of Brain Computer Interface A BCI is a computer-based system that acquires brain signals, analyzes them, and translates them into commands that are relayed to an output device to carry out a…

Introduction of HopField Neural Network

Human beings are constantly thinking since ages about the reasons for human capabilities and incapabilities. Successful attempts have been made to design and develop systems that emulate human capabilities or help overcome human incapabilities. The human brain, which has taken millions of years to evolve to its present architecture, excels at tasks such as vision, speech, information retrieval, complex pattern recognition, all of which are extremely difficult tasks for conventional computers. A number of mechanisms have been which seems to enable human brain to handle various problems. These mechanisms include association; generalization and self-organization. A brain similar computational technique namely HopField Neural Network is explained here. Working of Hop Field Neural Network A neural network (or more formally artificial neural network) is a mathematical model or computational model inspired by the structure and functional aspects of biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons. The original inspiration for the term Artificial Neural Network came from examination of central nervous systems and their neurons, axons, dendrites and synapses which constitute the processing elements of biological neural networks. One of the milestones for the current renaissance in the field of neural networks was the associative model proposed by Hopfield at…

An Introduction of Data Visualization

A picture is worth a thousand words – especially when we are trying to understand and discover insights from data. Visuals are especially helpful when we’re trying to find relationships among hundreds or thousands of variables to determine their relative importance – or if they are important at all. Regardless of how much data we have, one of the best ways to discern important relationships is through advanced analysis and high-performance data visualization. If sophisticated analyses can be performed quickly, even immediately, and results presented in ways that showcase patterns and allow querying and exploration, people across all levels in our organization can make faster, more effective decisions. Data Visualization : Definition Data visualizations are surprisingly common in our everyday life, but they often appear in the form of well-known charts and graphs. A combination of multiple visualizations and bits of information are often referred to as infographics. Data visualizations can be used to discover unknown facts and trends. You may see visualizations in the form of line charts to display change over time. Bar and column charts are useful when observing relationships and making comparisons. Pie charts are a great way to show parts-of-a-whole. And maps are the best way…

What is Knowledge Graph

Knowledge graphs are large networks of entities and their semantic relationships. They are a powerful tool that changes the way we do data integration, search, analytics, and context-sensitive recommendations. Knowledge graphs have been successfully utilized by the large Internet tech companies, with prominent examples such as the Google Knowledge Graph. Open knowledge graphs such as Wikidata make community-created knowledge freely accessible. Overview of Knowledge graphs The World Wide Web is a vast repository of knowledge, with data present in multiple modalities such as text, videos, images, structured tables, etc. However, most of the data is present in unstructured format and extracting information in structured machine-readable format is still a very difficult task. Knowledge graphs aim at constructing large repositories of structured knowledge which can be understood by machines. Such knowledge graphs are being used to improve the relevance and the quality of search in case of search engines like Google and Bing. Knowledge graphs are also being used by applications like Google now, Microsoft Cortana and Apple Siri which are capable of understanding natural language queries and answer questions, making recommendations, etc. to the user. The construction of knowledge graphs is thus a major step towards making intelligent personalized machines. Web…

What is Fault Tolerance in Distributed System

The use of technology has increased vastly and today computer systems are interconnected via different communication medium. The use of distributed systems in our day to day activities has solely improved with data distributions. This is because distributed systems enable nodes to organize and allow their resources to be used among the connected systems or devices that make people to be integrated with geographically distributed computing facilities. The distributed systems may lead to lack of service availability due to multiple system failures on multiple failure points. Definition of Fault Tolerance In a broad sense, fault tolerance is associated with reliability, with successful operation, and with the absence of breakdowns. A fault-tolerant system should be able to handle faults in individual hardware or software components, power failures or other kinds of unexpected disasters and still meet its specification. A fault-tolerance is the ability of a system to continue correct performance of its intended tasks after the occurrence of hardware and software faults. Fault tolerant system research covers a wide spectrum of applications namely embedded real-time systems, commercial transaction systems, transportation systems, and military/space systems, distribution and service systems, etc. Fault tolerance approach in any system results in the improvement as far as…

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