What are Cryptocurrencies in Digital World?
Technology & Science / June 16, 2018

Cryptocurrencies have increasingly become all the rage in digital currency market. Although blockchain’s decentralise and unregulated platform has resulted in the creation of hundreds of new cryptocurrencies, this has also led to the digital currency market becoming somewhat unstable. Over the past couple of years, popular cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, and ZCash, among others saw massive fluctuations in their value. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency that uses cryptography for security and anti-counterfeiting measures. Public and private keys are often used to transfer cryptocurrency between individuals. Basic Overview of Cryptocurrencies A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency designed to work as a medium of exchange. It uses cryptography to secure and verify transactions as well as to control the creation of new units of a particular cryptocurrency. Essentially, cryptocurrencies are limited entries in a database that no one can change unless specific conditions are fulfilled. As a counter-culture movement that is often connected to cypherpunks, cryptocurrency is essentially a fiat currency. This means users must reach a consensus about cryptocurrency’s value and use it as an exchange medium. However, because it is not tied to a particular country, its value is not controlled by a central…

What is Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) in Networking?
Networking , Technology & Science / June 14, 2018

Understanding networking is a fundamental part of configuring complex environments on the internet. This has implications when trying to communicate between servers efficiently, developing secure network policies, and keeping your nodes organized. CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) was introduced in 1993 replacing the previous generation of IP address syntax – classful networks. CIDR allowed for more efficient use of IPv4 address space and prefix aggregation, known as route summarization or supernetting. Basic Overview of CIDR A system called Classless Inter-Domain Routing, or CIDR, was developed as an alternative to traditional subnetting. The idea is that we can add a specification in the IP address itself as to the number of significant bits that make up the routing or networking portion. Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) is a set of Internet protocol (IP) standards that is used to create unique identifiers for networks and individual devices. The IP addresses allow particular information packets to be sent to specific computers. Shortly after the introduction of CIDR, technicians found it difficult to track and label IP addresses, so a notation system was developed to make the process more efficient and standardized. That system is known as CIDR notation. To illustrate the problems with the class…

What is Proxy Server in Networking?
Networking , Technology & Science / June 12, 2018

A computer can act on the behalf of other computers to request content from the Internet or an intranet. Proxy Server is placed between a user’s machine and the Internet. It can act as a firewall to provide protection and as a cache area to speed up Web page display. Proxy server is a computer that sits between a client computer and the Internet, and provides indirect network services to a client. It may reside on the user’s local computer, or at various points between the user’s computer and destination servers on the Internet. A proxy server intercepts all client requests, and provides responses from its cache or forwards the request to the real server. A client computer is connected to the proxy server, which acknowledges client requests by providing the requested resource/data from either a specified server or the local cache memory. Client requests include files or any other resources available on various servers. Basic Overview of Proxy Server Basically proxy server plays an intermediary between the client computer and the server computer. The clients usually take the help of proxy server for requesting any files, any web pages or any other resources. The proxy server acts as an…

What is Deadloack in Operating System?
Technology & Science / June 10, 2018

A set of processes is deadlocked if each process in the set is waiting for an event that only another process in the set can cause. Deadlocks are a set of blocked processes each holding a resource and waiting to acquire a resource held by another process. Because all the processes are waiting, none of them will ever cause any of the events that could wake up any of the other members of the set, and all the processes continue to wait forever. For this model, we assume that processes have only a single thread and that there are no interrupts possible to wake up a blocked process. The no-interrupts condition is needed to prevent an otherwise deadlocked process from being awakened by, say, an alarm, and then causing events that release other processes in the set. In most cases, the event that each process is waiting for is the release of some resource currently possessed by another member of the set. In other words, each member of the set of deadlocked processes is waiting for a resource that is owned by a deadlocked process. None of the processes can run, none of them can release any resources, and none of…

What is Digital Certificate in Network Security?

Digital certificates are a core component in the provision of secure data communications. Gaining an understanding of the nature, creation and operation as well as the variety of these certificates is an essential step for students of computer, information or network security. Digital Certificates provide a means of proving your identity in electronic transactions; much like a driver license or a passport does in face-to-face interactions. With a Digital Certificate, you can assure friends, business associates, and online services that the electronic information they receive from you are authentic. Basic Overview of Digital Certificate A Digital Certificate is an electronic “password” that allows a person, organization to exchange data securely over the Internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI). Digital Certificate is also known as a public key certificate or identity certificate. Digital certificates provide a mechanism to authenticate and secure information on open networks. Applications using this mechanism include secure email, secure web communications, digital signing of software files, smart card authentication, and encrypting file systems. Certificates are a key building block for providing security services within an IT infrastructure, usually referred to as a public key infrastructure (PKI). Such contexts support: the binding of public keys to entities the distribution of public key…

What is Multimedia Communication in Computer Graphics?

Multimedia communication deals with the transfer, the protocols, services and mechanisms of discrete media data (such as text and graphics) and continuous media data (like audio and video) in/over digital networks. Multimedia systems have attracted much attention during the last few years in the society as a whole and in the information technology field in particular. Multimedia communication comprises the techniques needed for distributed multimedia systems. To enable the access to information such as audio and video data, techniques must be developed which allow for the handling of audiovisual information in computer and communication systems Basic Overview of Multimedia Communication Multimedia is everywhere as a communication method to educate, inspire, and encourage people through several digital forms like photography, video, illustration, animation, audio, text, interactive websites and engaging environments. Expressive and talented people with digital communication skills have the desirable job skills that employers are seeking including analytical thinking, creative problem solving, and working collaboratively. Our multimedia communication degrees are designed to balance artistic technique and technical proficiency with professional competency in print, web, and social media applications. Visual literacy, creativity, and collaboration are integrated into a curriculum that teaches you how to develop digital media content that responds to…

What is Network Time Protocol (NTP) in networking?
Networking , Technology & Science / June 7, 2018

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is very important for modern networks. If the time across network devices is not accurate, this can have a direct impact on network security and network management, just to name two. The key to accurate time in the network is to have your devices receive the correct time from an atomic clock, and then synchronize this correct time across all of the devices. Network Time Protocol ensures this process is automated and secure. This article serves as your introduction to this critical network function. NTP is a protocol designed to synchronize the clocks of computers over a network. Network Time Protocol (NTP) provides a mechanism to synchronize time throughout the network. An NTP device will form an association with NTP devices closer to the time source. NTP devices use a special measurement, called a stratum, to determine how far they are away from the time source. Basic Overview of the NTP NTP stands for Network Time Protocol, and it is an Internet protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers to sometime reference. NTP is an Internet standard protocol originally developed by Professor David L. Mills at the University of Delaware. The NTP system is based…

What is CORBA in Distributed System?
Database , Technology & Science / June 6, 2018

In recent years, with the growing maturity and application of new technologies such as software architecture, software component, large-granularity software reuse and so on, software engineering methodology based on product line, which rises the widespread concern and attention, has become a hot and key topic in software engineering field. ORBA is often described as a “software bus” because it is a software-based communications interface through which objects are located and accessed. The illustration below identifies the primary components seen within a CORBA implementation. Overview of CORBA The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to provide interoperability among distributed objects. CORBA is the world’s leading middleware solution enabling the exchange of information, independent of hardware platforms, programming languages, and operating systems. CORBA is essentially a design specification for an Object Request Broker (ORB), where an ORB provides the mechanism required for distributed objects to communicate with one another, whether locally or on remote devices, written in different languages, or at different locations on a network. The OMG’s vision of a distributed application is shown in Figure, which I have adapted from Siegel’s diagram of the Object Management Architecture (Siegal, 1998). This…

What is DNS Spoofing and how it works

The DNS is responsible for resolving human-readable domain names to numeric IP addresses. It is a protocol designed in the early days of the internet, and features only weak security mechanisms. DNS Spoofing, also known as DNS Poisoning or DNS Cache Poisoning, involves corrupting an Internet server’s Domain Name System table by replacing a valid Internet address with that of another, rogue address. When a web user looks for the affected page, the request is redirected to a different address where a worm, spyware, web browser hijacking program, or other malware can be downloaded to the user’s computer from the. Basic Overview of DNS Spoofing DNS spoofing occurs when a particular DNS server’s records of “spoofed” or altered maliciously to redirect traffic to the attacker. This redirection of traffic allows the attacker to spread malware, steal data, etc. For example, if a DNS record is spoofed, then the attacker can manage to redirect all the traffic that relied on the correct DNS record to visit a fake website that the attacker has created to resemble the real site or a different site completely. DNS is a Domain Name System, which has all the websites names and its corresponding IP address in…

What is Part of Speech Tagging in Natural Language Processing?

With the advancement of technology, the demand of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is also increasing and it becomes very important to find out correct information from collection of huge data only on the basis of queries and keywords. Sometimes user tries to search data with help of query and get unimportant or irrelevant data instead of correct data. The aim of Natural Language Processing is to facilitate the interaction between human and machine. Many challenges in NLP involve natural language understanding, that is, enabling computers to derive meaning from human or natural language input, and others involve natural language generation. The solution for language understanding is Part of Speech tagging. The basic system is human-computer interaction, which allows user to interact with computer using their everyday languages. Basic Overview of Part of Speech Tagging A Part of Speech Tagger (POS Tagger) is a piece of software that reads text in some language and assigns parts of speech to each word (and other token), such as noun, verb, adjective, etc., although generally computational applications use more fine-grained POS tags like ‘noun-plural’. Tagging Automatic assignment of descriptors to the given tokens is called Tagging. The descriptor is called tag. The tag may…

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