How to Implement ID3 Decision Tree Algorithm using JAVA

The development of Information technology has generated large amount of databases and huge data in various areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this precious data for further decision making. Decision tree is powerful and popular tool for classification and prediction. Decision trees represent rules. A decision tree is predictive model that, as its name implies, can be viewed as a tree. Specifically each branch of the tree is a classification question and the leaves of the tree are partitions of the dataset with their classification. Decision tree is a classifier in the form of a tree structure, where each node is either: A leaf node- indicates the value of the target attribute(class) of examples, or A decision node- specifies some test to be carried out on a single attribute- value, with one branch and sub-tree for each possible outcome of the test. ID3 algorithm is primarily used for decision making. ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm invented by Ross Quinlan is used to generate a decision tree from a dataset. There are different implementations given for Decision Trees. Major ones are ID3: Iternative Dichotomizer was the very first implementation…

Multi Agent System in Artificial Intelligence

Multi-agent systems are made up of multiple interacting intelligent agents—computational entities to some degree autonomous and able to cooperate, compete, communicate, act flexibly, and exercise control over their behavior within the frame of their objectives. They are the enabling technology for a wide range of advanced applications relying on distributed and parallel processing of data, information, and knowledge relevant in domains ranging from industrial manufacturing to e-commerce to health care. What is Multi-agent system? In artificial intelligence research, agent-based systems technology has been hailed as a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing software systems. Agents are sophisticated computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of their users, across open and distributed environments, to solve a growing number of complex problems. Increasingly, however, applications require multiple agents that can work together. A multi-agent system (MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM) is a loosely coupled network of software agents that interact to solve problems that are beyond the individual capacities or knowledge of each problem solver. Multi-agent system can be define by the following definition: “A multi-agent system is a loosely coupled network of problem-solving entities (agents) that work together to find answers to problems that are beyond the individual capabilities or knowledge of each…

Dynamic Energy Management for Smart Grid

Against a backdrop of increasing energy costs and tightening constraints on resource availability, the call for greater optimization and highly efficient induction heating has grown louder and louder. Innovative and intelligent strategies are now available to increase energy efficiency and production flexibility while simultaneously streamlining operations and reducing spare part costs. Together with laborsaving automation, improved energy efficiency offers the most meaningful productivity gains. Overview of Energy Management Dynamic Energy Management is an innovative approach to managing load at the demand-side. It incorporates the conventional energy use management principles represented in demand-side management, demand response, and distributed energy resource programs and merges them in an integrated framework that simultaneously addresses permanent energy savings, permanent demand reductions, and temporary peak load reductions. This is accomplished through a system comprising smart end-use devices and distributed energy resources with highly advanced controls and communications capabilities that enable dynamic management of the system as a whole. The components build upon each other and interact with one another to contribute to an infrastructure that is dynamic, fully-integrated, highly energy efficient, automated, and capable of learning. These components work in unison to optimize operation of the integrated system based on consumer requirements, utility constraints, available incentives, and…

How to Use OpenCV with Java under NetBeans IDE
Image Processing , Java , Technology & Science / January 25, 2018

This post will assist to developers who want to work  with Java and OpenCV environment. Here, we demonstrate how to use OpenCV with netbeans IDE.  In this post, we explain how to configure the netbeans IDE to facilitate execution of OpenCV applications. OpenCV 2.4.8 used for Java application, OpenCV supports Java from OpenCV 2.4.4 version. OpenCV OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is an open source computer vision and machine learning software library. OpenCV was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in the commercial products. Being a BSD-licensed product, OpenCV makes it easy for businesses to utilize and modify the code. Currently OpenCV supports a wide variety of programming languages like C++, Python, Java etc and is available on different platforms including Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS etc. Also, interfaces based on CUDA and OpenCL are also under active development for high-speed GPU operations. OpenCV-Python is the Python API of OpenCV. It combines the best qualities of OpenCV C++ API and Python language. OpenCV Basics: How to Start Work? Start with Netbeans IDE: Configuration Process The subsequent steps show how to configure the netbeans 6.9.1 description with…

Install Hadoop in Stand-Alone Mode on Ubuntu 16.04
Big Data , Technology & Science / January 24, 2018

Hadoop is a framework written in Java for running applications on large clusters of commodity hardware and incorporates features comparable to those of the Google File System (GFS) and of the MapReduce computing paradigm. Hadoop’s HDFS is a highly fault-tolerant distributed file system and, like Hadoop in general, designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. It provides high throughput access to application data and is suitable for applications that have large data sets. Hadoop was sponsored by Apache Software Foundation. It is a Cluster data Management Project (CDMP). Hadoop is a Java-based framework which manages the large data sets among the group of cluster machines. It is very hard to configure the Cluster with Hadoop. But we can also install Hadoop on a single machine to perform some basic operations. Hadoop may appear single software but it has a lot of components following it. Hadoop Common: We can say this as a big library which consists of utilities and libraries to support other Hadoop modules. HDFS: The Hadoop Distributed File system is responsible storing the data on the hard disk. YARN: YARN is the open source distributed processing framework and it stands for Yet Another Resource Negotiator. MapReduce: Map reduce…

What is Keystroke Dynamics, Applications and Definition
Technology & Science / January 20, 2018

The increasing use of automated information systems together with our pervasive use of computers has greatly simplified our lives, while making us overwhelmingly dependent on computers and digital networks. Technological achievements over the past decade have resulted in improved network services, particularly in the areas of performance, reliability, and availability, and have significantly reduced operating costs due to the more efficient utilization of these advancements. We argue that the use of keystroke rhythm is a natural choice for computer security. This argument stems from observations that similar neuro-physiological factors that make written signatures unique are also exhibited in a user’s typing pattern. Introduction of Keystroke dynamics Keystroke dynamics or typing dynamics refers to the automated method of identifying or confirming the identity of an individual based on the manner and the rhythm of typing on a keyboard. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioral biometric, this means that the biometric factor is ‘something you do’. These days each household has at least one computer keyboard, making keystroke dynamics the easiest biometric solution to implement in terms of hardware. With keystroke dynamics the biometric template used to identify an individual is based on the typing pattern, the rhythm and the speed of typing on…

Introduction of Context Aware Computing

Context-aware computing promises a smooth interaction between humans and technology but few studies have been conducted with regards to how autonomously an application should perform. Context-aware computing is a style of computing in which situational and environmental information about people, places and things is used to anticipate immediate needs and proactively offer enriched, situation-aware and usable content, functions and experiences. The notion of context is much more widely appreciated today. The term “context-aware computing” is commonly understood by those working in ubiquitous/pervasive computing, where it is felt that context is a key in their efforts to disperse and enmesh computation into our lives. Overview of Context-aware computing Context is a powerful, and longstanding, concept in human-computer interaction. Interaction with computation is by explicit acts of communication (e.g., pointing to a menu item), and the context is implicit (e.g., default settings). Context can be used to interpret explicit acts, making communication much more efficient. Thus, by carefully embedding computing into the context of our lived activities, it can serve us with minimal effort on our part. Communication can be not only effortless, but also naturally fit in with our ongoing activities. A great deal of effort has gone into the field of…

How Business Analytics Works

Every business is dynamic in nature and is affected by various external and internal factors. These factors include external market conditions, competitors, internal restructuring and re-alignment, operational optimization and paradigm shifts in the business itself. New regulations and restrictions, in combination with the above factors, contribute to the constant evolutionary nature of compelling, business-critical information; the kind of information that an organization needs to sustain and thrive. Business Intelligence (“BI”) is broad term that encapsulates the process of gathering information pertaining to a business and the market. What is Business Analytics? Business intelligence (BI) has two basic different meanings related to the use of the term intelligence. The primary, less frequently, is the human intelligence capacity applied in business affairs/activities. Intelligence of Business is a new field of the investigation of the application of human cognitive faculties and artificial intelligence technologies to the management and decision support in different business problems. The second relates to the intelligence as information valued for its currency and relevance. It is expert information, knowledge and technologies efficient in the management of organizational and individual business. Therefore, in this sense, business intelligence is a broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, providing access to,…

Voice over Long Term Evolution (VoLTE)
Networking , Technology & Science / January 16, 2018

Rapid increase in data traffic over cellular network is necessitating deployment of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in the cellular operator’s networks. While LTE provides efficient data traffic handling and high data rates, it lacks native circuit switched voice capability. Mobile operators have begun migrating to fourth-generation (4G) architectures based on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) standard, including the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) architecture defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). According to a recent report from the Global mobile Supplies Association (GSA), LTE has become the fastest-developing mobile communications systems technology. What is Voice over Long Term Evolution (VoLTE)? The data traffic, in telecom system, is growing at a rapid pace. However, presently for any mobile system to be commercially viable, the ability to carry voice traffic is essential. The existing 2G/3G mobile systems use “Circuit Switching” to carry voice traffic. In Circuit Switching a dedicated, end-to-end, channel or circuit is established to carry the voice traffic for the entire duration of a transmission. On the other hand, in case of IP networks, the voice traffic is carried using IP packets over data connection. For this generally “VoIP” or “VoLTE” solutions are used. For mobile communications service providers (CSPs), Voice…

King Martin Luther Jr.
History , Travel and Destinations / January 14, 2018

Martin Luther King, Jr., original name Michael King, Jr., (born January 15, 1929, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.—died April 4, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee), Baptist minister and social activist who led the civil rights movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. His leadership was fundamental to that movement’s success in ending the legal segregation of African Americans in the South and other parts of the United States. King rose to national prominence as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which promoted nonviolent tactics, such as the massive March on Washington (1963), to achieve civil rights. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Figure 1: King Martin Luther Jr. Education: King Martin Luther Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. began his education at Yonge Street Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia. Following Yonge School, he was enrolled in David T. Howard Elementary School. He also attended the Atlanta University Laboratory School and Booker T. Washington High School. Because of his high score on the college entrance examinations in his junior year of high school, he advanced to Morehouse College without formal graduation from Booker T. Washington. Having skipped both the ninth and twelfth grades, Dr….

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