What is Session Hijacking in Cyber Security?

Now a days, the usage of web based applications are increasing and the session vulnerabilities are very common in all web applications. Information security is a vital area of concern for all users, which goes beyond the technical domain. It is likely to affect the entire human race if not properly handled. Security is the degree of conflict to, or defense from harm. It applies to any susceptible and precious asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, organization, or nation. The Internet has become immensely popular and used by people of all different backgrounds. It has increased the development of web applications in recent years. Simultaneously, the impact and amount of security vulnerabilities on web applications are also on hike. Overview  of Session Hijacking? Session hijacking is an exploitation of a valid web application session or session key, to gain unauthorized access to information or services in a computer system. Due to the stateless nature of the HTTP protocol, web applications require additional measures to keep their users authenticated. To achieve this criterion, session identifiers are used for the authentication process. After a successful authentication, the web application generates the session ID, which will be transmitted to the client. Every…

What is MD 5 Algorithm in Network Security?

Overview of MD5 Algorithm Hash algorithms are important components in many cryptographic applications and security protocol suites. MD5 which stands for Message Digest algorithm 5 is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The idea behind this algorithm is to take up a random data (text or binary) as an input and generate a fixed size “hash value” as the output. The input data can be of any size or length, but the output “hash value” size is always fixed. MD5 was designed by well-known cryptographer Ronald Rivest in 1991. In 2004, some serious flaws were found in MD5. The complete implications of these flaws has yet to be determined. The MD5 algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm that takes an input of arbitrary length and produces a message digest that is 128 bits long. The digest is sometimes also called the “hash” or “fingerprint” of the input. MD5 is used in many situations where a potentially long message needs to be processed and/or compared quickly. The most common application is the creation and verification of digital signatures. Properties of a Message-Digest Algorithm When people plan to design a message-digest algorithm, they try to make the algorithm satisfy the following properties: It…

What is Cluster Sampling?
Technology & Science / May 5, 2018

Cluster sampling (also known as one-stage cluster sampling) is a technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. Cluster sampling involves identification of cluster of participants representing the population and their inclusion in the sample group. This is a popular method in conducting marketing researches. The main aim of cluster sampling can be specified as cost reduction and increasing the levels of efficiency of sampling. This specific technique can also be applied in integration with multi-stage sampling. Overview of Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling is the sampling method where different groups within a population are used as a sample. This is different from stratified sampling in that you will use the entire group, or cluster, as a sample rather than a randomly selected member of all groups. It’s a sampling method used when assorted groupings are naturally exhibited in a population, making random sampling from those groups possible. The use of the technique requires the division or classification of the population into groups, defined by their assorted characteristics or qualities. These groups are then called clusters. Cluster sampling is commonly used for market research because of its ability to help account for the…

What is Random Sampling?
Technology & Science / May 4, 2018

Definition of Random Sampling Sampling is based on probability theory –in its broadest sense, if we can choose respondents randomly and appropriately from the larger population, the results from that random sample will be very close to what we would get by interviewing every member of the population. Random sampling is a technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an unbiased representation of the total population. Random sampling is a part of the sampling technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an unbiased representation of the total population. If for some reasons, the sample does not represent the population, the variation is called a sampling error. Overview of Random Sampling Random sampling is one of the simplest forms of collecting data from the total population. Under random sampling, each member of the subset carries an equal opportunity of being chosen as a part of the sampling process. For example, the total workforce in organizations is 300 and to conduct a survey, a sample group of 30 employees is selected to do the survey. In…

What is Multi-level Feedback Queue Scheduling (MLFQ)?
Technology & Science / May 3, 2018

Effective and efficient scheduling is an important aspect of operating system. Scheduling is a process of deciding how to allocate resources between different possible tasks. Feedback scheduling is a kind of process scheduling mechanism where process doesn’t come with any priority. Process scheduling for real-time processes is a critical function of real-time operating systems, which are required to guarantee soft and hard deadlines for completing real-time processes. The behavior of Multi-Level Feedback Queue (MLFQ) scheduling mechanisms intrinsically support a scheduling that favors short CPU bursts to the complete exclusion of all other processes in the ready queues. About Multi-level Feedback Queue Scheduling In computer science, a multilevel feedback queue is a scheduling algorithm. This scheduling algorithm is intended to meet the following design requirements for multi-mode systems: Give preference to short jobs. Give preference to I/O bound processes. Separate processes into categories based on their need for the processor. The multilevel feedback queue scheduling algorithm, allows a process to move between queues. The idea is to separate processes according to the characteristics of their CPU bursts. If a process uses too much CPU time, it will be moved to a lower-priority queue. This scheme leaves I/O-bound and interactive processes in…

What is Distributed Shared Memory in Computer System?
Technology & Science / May 2, 2018

In parallel and distributed applications there are two common programming models for inter-process communication: shared memory and message passing. Shared memory has been the standard for tightly-coupled systems (multiprocessors), where the processors have uniform access to a single global memory. A large progress was recently made in the research and development of systems with multiple processors, capable of delivering high computing power in order to satisfy the constantly increasing demands of typical applications. Overview of Distributed Shared Memory Distributed shared memory (DSM) systems simplify the task of writing distributedmemory parallel programs by automating data distribution and communication. Unfortunately, DSM systems control memory and communication using fixed policies, even when programmers or compilers could manage these resources more efficiently. Distributed shared memory is an attempt to merge the ease of programming of shared memory, with the scalability of distributed memory architectures. Hiding the distribution aspects of an architecture for the programmer eases programming and especially porting existing, applications. DSM systems exist in a large number and with very varying behavior. Distributed shared memory (DSM) is an abstraction used for sharing data between computers that do not share physical memory. Processes access DSM by reads and updates to what appears to be…

Happy Labour Day
Culture , History / May 1, 2018

Stand up for workers all over the world. They are true heroes of every nation and the ladder through which economy of every nation grows. Worker’s day is a happy day for relaxation and merriment. Every worker is diligent and deserves a May Bloom on this International Labour Day. As heaven is a blessing to all living things, workers are blessings to every nation. They should be celebrated. You can celebrate workers by sending them best wishes or inspiring messages quotes to enable them do more at work. As you celebrate a worker, you celebrate yourself because you are a worker in some respects. We created few messages you can use both to celebrate a workers and wish them happy day celebration. The Labour Day in India is celebrated in order to honor the contribution of working men and women. It is observed on the first day of the month of May. The Labour Day in India is also known as the May Day. May 1 corresponds to the International Workers’ Day which is celebrated around the world. It is observed as a national holiday in around 80 countries including India. History of Labour Day in India Labour Day in…

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