What is Blowfish Algorithm in Cryptography?

In cryptographic circles, plaintext is the message we are trying to transmit. The process of encryption converts that plaintext message into ciphertext, and decryption converts the ciphertext back into plaintext. Encryption algorithms are technically classified in two broad categories- Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. In symmetric type of Cryptography, the key that is used for encryption is same as the key used in decryption. Examples of various symmetric key algorithms are Data encryption standard (DES), Triple DES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Blowfish Encryption Algorithm. In Asymmetric Cryptography, two unique keys are used for encryption and decryption. One is public and the other one is private. Examples of various Asymmetric key algorithms are Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC), Diffie–Hellman key exchange, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), etc. Overview of blowfish Algorithm Blowfish is another algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier in 1993 to replace DES. This symmetric cipher splits messages into blocks of 64 bits and encrypts them individually. Blowfish can be found in software categories ranging from e-commerce platforms for securing payments to password management tools, where it used to protect passwords. It’s definitely one of the more flexible encryption methods available. Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher that can be used as…

Raja Ram Mohan Roy: A Social Activist
Culture , History / May 22, 2018

Raja Ram Mohan Roy is a great historical figure who put laudable efforts to transform India and dared to defy the age old Hindu traditions. He undertook a lot of social reforms to change the society and worked to uplift the status of women in India. Roy fought against Sati system. He was also a great scholar who translated many books, religious and philosophical work and scriptures into Bengali and also translated Vedic scriptures into English. All about Raja Ram Mohan Roy In the early nineteenth century, many educated Indians began to feel that western culture and the rising tide of Christianity posed a challenge to their age old traditions and beliefs. In their attempt to remedy the situation, many reformers became critical of the past and began to look for ways to rid the society of its evils, such as caste distinction, purdah system and the custom of Sati. They wanted a new social order in keeping with the traditional values and modern development. Many Indians were impressed by progress made by science as well as the doctrine of reason and humanism of the West. The social conditions of the 19th century led to socio-religious reform movements. One of…

What is RSA Algorithm in Network Security?

RSA Algorithm is christened after its joint inventors, Ron Rivset, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman who invented it during 1977. This algorithm is the first of its kind that can be used for public key encryption as well as digital signatures. The RSA cryptosystem is the most widely-used public key cryptography algorithm in the world. It can be used to encrypt a message without the need to exchange a secret key separately. The RSA algorithm can be used for both public key encryption and digital signatures. Its security is based on the difficulty of factoring large integers. Party A can send an encrypted message to party B without any prior exchange of secret keys. A just uses B’s public key to encrypt the message and B decrypts it using the private key, which only he knows. RSA can also be used to sign a message, so A can sign a message using their private key and B can verify it using A’s public key. RSA algorithm is asymmetric cryptography algorithm. Asymmetric actually means that it works on two different keys i.e. Public Key and Private Key. As the name describes that the Public Key is given to everyone and Private Key…

What is Graphics Rendering in Computer Graphics?

Computer generated images by default render the entire scene in perfect focus. The desire to render the world around us is common to many applications. As part of this ‘virtual world’ it is natural to include representations of humans. A realistic visual approximation of a human requires a polygon mesh of significant complexity, especially as it has to be sufficiently tessellated to allow smooth deformations of the model. Image-based modeling and rendering techniques have recently received much attention as a powerful alternative to traditional geometry-based techniques for image synthesis. Instead of geometric primitives, a collection of sample images are used to render novel views. Definition of Rendering Graphics Graphics Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of a software program. The model is a description of three dimensional objects in a strictly defined language or data structure. It would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture and lighting information. The image is a digital image or raster graphics image. The term may be by analogy with an “artist’s rendering” of a scene. ‘Rendering’ is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output. It is one of…

What is Virtual private network and how it works
Networking , Technology & Science / May 18, 2018

VPN literally stands for virtual private network. With a VPN, all your traffic is held inside a private, encrypted tunnel as it makes its way through the public internet. You don’t access the destination until after you’ve reached the end of the VPN tunnel. The root of why VPNs are popular is because they can be used to anonymize and encrypt internet traffic. Governments, ISPs, wireless network hackers and others can not only not see what’s inside a VPN but also usually not even be able to find out who is using it. Overview of VPN A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network. The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely transmitted. It prevents unauthorized people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to conduct work remotely.  VPN technology is widely used in corporate environments. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is an entity where remote locations are connected over a shared provider environment. It establishes connectivity between a set of geographically dispersed endpoints in a network infrastructure. The endpoints of the VPN are connected using links and increasing demand on the performance of network connectivity…

What is Secure Shell Protocol in Computer Network?

As Internet access becomes increasingly inexpensive and available, it has become a viable replacement for traditional couriers, telephone, and fax, as well as remote dial-up access to a company’s internal computer resources. SSH, the Secure Shell could be a common software based approach to network security. It is a protocol that enables user to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to maneuver files from one machine to a different. Overview of Secure Shell SSH or Secure Shell is a network communication protocol that enables two computers to communicate and share data. An inherent feature of SSH is that the communication between the two computers is encrypted meaning that it is suitable for use on insecure networks. Secure Shell is a protocol that provides authentication, encryption and data integrity to secure network communications. Implementations of Secure Shell offer the following capabilities: a secure command-shell, secure file transfer, and remote access to a variety of TCP/IP applications via a secure tunnel. Secure Shell client and server applications are widely available for most popular operating systems. SSH (Secure Shell) is a protocol for running secure network services over an insecure network. The protocol serves…

What is Session Hijacking in Cyber Security?

Now a days, the usage of web based applications are increasing and the session vulnerabilities are very common in all web applications. Information security is a vital area of concern for all users, which goes beyond the technical domain. It is likely to affect the entire human race if not properly handled. Security is the degree of conflict to, or defense from harm. It applies to any susceptible and precious asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, organization, or nation. The Internet has become immensely popular and used by people of all different backgrounds. It has increased the development of web applications in recent years. Simultaneously, the impact and amount of security vulnerabilities on web applications are also on hike. Overview  of Session Hijacking? Session hijacking is an exploitation of a valid web application session or session key, to gain unauthorized access to information or services in a computer system. Due to the stateless nature of the HTTP protocol, web applications require additional measures to keep their users authenticated. To achieve this criterion, session identifiers are used for the authentication process. After a successful authentication, the web application generates the session ID, which will be transmitted to the client. Every…

What is MD 5 Algorithm in Network Security?

Overview of MD5 Algorithm Hash algorithms are important components in many cryptographic applications and security protocol suites. MD5 which stands for Message Digest algorithm 5 is a widely used cryptographic hash function. The idea behind this algorithm is to take up a random data (text or binary) as an input and generate a fixed size “hash value” as the output. The input data can be of any size or length, but the output “hash value” size is always fixed. MD5 was designed by well-known cryptographer Ronald Rivest in 1991. In 2004, some serious flaws were found in MD5. The complete implications of these flaws has yet to be determined. The MD5 algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm that takes an input of arbitrary length and produces a message digest that is 128 bits long. The digest is sometimes also called the “hash” or “fingerprint” of the input. MD5 is used in many situations where a potentially long message needs to be processed and/or compared quickly. The most common application is the creation and verification of digital signatures. Properties of a Message-Digest Algorithm When people plan to design a message-digest algorithm, they try to make the algorithm satisfy the following properties: It…

What is Cluster Sampling?
Technology & Science / May 5, 2018

Cluster sampling (also known as one-stage cluster sampling) is a technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. Cluster sampling involves identification of cluster of participants representing the population and their inclusion in the sample group. This is a popular method in conducting marketing researches. The main aim of cluster sampling can be specified as cost reduction and increasing the levels of efficiency of sampling. This specific technique can also be applied in integration with multi-stage sampling. Overview of Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling is the sampling method where different groups within a population are used as a sample. This is different from stratified sampling in that you will use the entire group, or cluster, as a sample rather than a randomly selected member of all groups. It’s a sampling method used when assorted groupings are naturally exhibited in a population, making random sampling from those groups possible. The use of the technique requires the division or classification of the population into groups, defined by their assorted characteristics or qualities. These groups are then called clusters. Cluster sampling is commonly used for market research because of its ability to help account for the…

What is Random Sampling?
Technology & Science / May 4, 2018

Definition of Random Sampling Sampling is based on probability theory –in its broadest sense, if we can choose respondents randomly and appropriately from the larger population, the results from that random sample will be very close to what we would get by interviewing every member of the population. Random sampling is a technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an unbiased representation of the total population. Random sampling is a part of the sampling technique in which each sample has an equal probability of being chosen. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an unbiased representation of the total population. If for some reasons, the sample does not represent the population, the variation is called a sampling error. Overview of Random Sampling Random sampling is one of the simplest forms of collecting data from the total population. Under random sampling, each member of the subset carries an equal opportunity of being chosen as a part of the sampling process. For example, the total workforce in organizations is 300 and to conduct a survey, a sample group of 30 employees is selected to do the survey. In…

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