What is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)?
/ April 29, 2018

Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) was originally designed for a smaller community of users which was assumed to be well behaved and trust worthy. As such no heed was paid towards incorporating security protocols in it. But with its growth, this trust was breached, owing to lack of adequate security mechanism in it. Email is emerging as the one of the most valuable service in internet today. Most of the internet systems use SMTP as a method to transfer mail from one user to another. Description about SMTP SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol allows transmitting electronic mail over the Internet or any other network. The protocol itself is designed on a character basis. Thus the entire transfer of a mail can be exanimated by a human being without having to decode first the data. This is the reason why mails can be send without major problem using a simple Telnet application. The entire process of sending a mail is describe here using a Telnet application as example base. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)…

What is Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
/ April 28, 2018

In recent years with the rapid development of the wireless internet and mobile communication systems, the use of notebook computers, PDAs and portable systems is gradually increasing and has become popular. And most of the users may want to access the internet from anywhere in the world. However, when these mobile hosts move from one network to another, users have to change system configuration, including host IP address, default gateway, and name servers. In order to support the automatic configuration changes on these hosts, several technologies such as dynamic host configuration mechanisms or mobility support in the IP layer have been developed. What is DHCP? The DHCP is an internet protocol that lets network administrators centrally manage and automate the assignment of IP addresses in an organization’s network. Without the DHCP, the IP address must be entered manually at each host in an organization and a new IP address must be entered each time a host moves to a new location on the network. DHCP refers to Dynamic Host Control Protocol. DHCP is responsible for dynamically assigning IP addresses to all the computers in a network immediately after the computer starts. DHCP (Server) is used to automatically allocate IP addresses…

What is Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
/ April 27, 2018

Routing is an important function in any network; it be wired or wireless. Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one intermediate node within the internetwork is encountered. Traditional wireless communication networks require a fixed infrastructure over which communication takes place. Therefore, considerable resources and effort are required to set up such networks, even before they can actually be used. Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic Overview of AODV In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad-hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. An Ad-hoc routing protocol is a convention or standard that controls how nodes come to agree which way to route packets between computing devices in a MANET. AODV is a very simple, efficient, and effective routing protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks which do not have…

What is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in Computer Network?
/ April 26, 2018

Since the invention of the telephone, real time communication networks have mostly been built using closed circuit switched network infrastructures, e.g. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). With the advent and the increasing popularity of the packet-switched Internet data network, providers are seeking ways to combine both communication and data networks on an all-IP network basis. Session Initiation Protocol is a core protocol for coming real time communication networks. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most common protocols used in VoIP technology. It is an application layer protocol that works in conjunction with other application layer protocols to control multimedia communication sessions over the Internet. Overview of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions (conferences). A session is considered as an exchange of data between an association of participants, such as Internet telephony calls and video telephony. SIP is able to support multicast conferences with more than two participants. Participants can be invited to already existing sessions. Media can be added to (and removed from) an existing session. SIP can be used to control Internet multimedia conferences, Internet telephone calls and multimedia distribution, in…

What is Distributed File System in Distributed System
Technology & Science / April 25, 2018

In the modern world, there is a growing need for collaboration among geographically separated groups. Platforms and services that assist such collaboration are in great demand. Applications that process large volumes of data require a backend infrastructure for storing data. The distributed file system is the central component for storing data infrastructure. The purpose of a distributed file system (DFS) is to allow users of physically distributed computers to share data and storage resources by using a common file system Overview of Distributed File System A distributed file system is a system which enables set of program to access and store files which are distributed across the boundaries. The system also allow user to find records from any machine in the network across the globe. The performance of the system can be compared with the local file system. The distributed file systems are responsible for various tasks like organizing of files, storage, extract, sharing, naming and security of records and files. This system provides abstraction that hides everything from the user and provides all concerns of the programmers. The files are stored in a specific structure on disks or other non – volatile devices. They have various provisions like creating,…

What is Unified Modeling Language (UML)?
Technology & Science / April 24, 2018

The increasing use of software is giving rise to development of highly complex software systems. Further, software systems are required to be of high quality as a defect can have catastrophic effect on business as well as human life. A picture is worth a thousand words. That’s why Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagramming was created: to forge a common visual language in the complex world of software development that would also be understandable for business users and anyone who wants to understand a system. Overview of UML Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of object-oriented software engineering. UML is a widely accepted standard for modeling software systems. It consists of a set of modeling concepts (primitives) to support an object oriented approach to software development. UML consists of a set of diagrams that model both static and dynamic behaviour of a system. Various aspects of the system are elaborated at different levels of abstraction using diagrams like use case diagram, class diagram, activity diagram, sequence diagram and state diagrams UML, as the name implies, is a modeling language. It may be used to visualize, specify, construct, and document the artifacts of a software…

Happy Earth Day
/ April 22, 2018

Earth is a common expression for the planet earth in a number of countries and regions, which reflects the interdependence that exists among human beings, other living species and the planet we all inhabit. The Earth and its ecosystems are our home. In order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social, and environmental needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with nature and the Earth. International Earth Day is celebrated to remind each of us that the Earth and its ecosystems provide us with life and sustenance. This Day also recognizes a collective responsibility, as called for in the 1992 Rio Declaration, to promote harmony with nature and the Earth to achieve a just balance among the economic, social and environmental needs of present and future generations of humanity. What is Earth Day? Earth Day is an event celebrated every year on the 22nd of April. The event is held worldwide to celebrate support for protection of the environment, and has continuously drawn more and more people in each subsequent year. Earth Day brings attention to a large number of issues in requirement of attention, such as pollution of the ocean, debris left…

What is Post office protocol 3 (POP3)?
/ April 21, 2018

Electronic mail is the core of modern communications. People rely on email to conduct their business and stay in touch with families. The ubiquity of an email availability is one of the strengths of the internet whose phenomenal growth and popularity are also due to the popularity of an email. E-mail system has become the most popular computer based method used to send and receive E-mail messages between the network clients inside or outside the local network. The most important point in E-mail system processes is to send and retrieve the E-mail message in the best delivery time without any delay or latency. Overview of POP 3? Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is a standard mail protocol used to receive emails from a remote server to a local email client. This protocol is generally used for receiving email over the Internet. POP3 server must be connected to read email from an email account. After connected with the server, all the email messages in an email account are numbered from 1 and the particular account is locked. This specified number identifies email in the given account. The account number is not changed even if the mail is deleted but the account number…

What is Object Oriented Database?
/ April 20, 2018

Databases fulfill several roles in the process of building computer applications. Like a file system, databases provide the means to store data between invocations of an application (i.e. persistence). Database systems, however, provide additional services not supported by most, if not all, file systems. History of data processing goes through many different changes with different technologies along with the time. In decade there is huge increase in the volume of data that need to be processed due to which sometimes old technology do not work and need to come with new technology to process the data. Overview of Object Oriented Database Object Oriented Databases stores data in the form of objects. An Object is something uniquely identifiable which models a real world entity and has got state and behaviour. In Object Oriented based Databases capabilities of Object based paradigm for Programming and databases are combined due remove the limitations of Relational databases and on the demand of some advanced applications. Object oriented databases are also called Object Database Management Systems (ODBMS). Object databases store objects rather than data such as integers, strings or real numbers. Objects are used in object oriented languages such as Smalltalk, C++, Java, and others. Objects…

What is Web Analytics in Big Data Analytics?
/ April 15, 2018

Today, the web users surf many different websites regularly in the course of their daily lives. The usability and conversion rate of a website reflect the kind of experience the web users have on the website. The success of a website rides on the usability and conversion rate of the website. The higher the usability and conversion rate of the website, the better the website is functioning. Web analytics consists of a series of metrics and techniques which are used by webmasters to gauge their website’s usability and conversion rate. What is web analytics? Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation of information about visitors of web sites for the purpose of their improvement and optimization. The main task of web analytics is to monitor traffic of the website, on the basis of which the web audience is determined and the behavior of web visitors is studied in order to make decisions on the development and increasing of the functionality of a web resource. Web analytics is the measurement and analysis of data to inform an understanding of user behavior across web pages. Analytics platforms measure activity and behavior on a website, for example: how many users…

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