What is Wireless Application protocol in Networking
Networking , Technology & Science / March 31, 2018

In the modern society, information and access is getting more and more important. During the last couple of years, there is a strong tendency towards mobility. This implies an increasing need for being online and having access to information all the time. Browsing on the internet is not restricted anymore to desktop computers, people can now also use their phones or PDA. This is done by WAP, the Wireless Application Protocol. WAP is a protocol stack for wireless communication networks, specified by the WAP forum. Overview of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a system designed to format and filter internet content for use in mobile devices. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a worldwide standard for the delivery and presentation of wireless information to mobile phones and other wireless devices. The idea behind WAP is simple: simplify the delivery of Internet content to wireless devices by delivering a comprehensive, Internet-based, wireless specification. The WAP Forum released the first version of WAP in 1998. Since then, it has been widely adopted by wireless phone manufacturers, wireless carriers, and application developers worldwide. Many industry analysts estimate that 90 percent of mobile phones sold over the next few…

What is a Confusion Matrix in Machine Learning?

What is Confusion Matrix? In the field of machine learning and specifically the problem of statistical classification, a confusion matrix, also known as an error matrix. A confusion matrix represents information about actual and classified cases produced by a classification system. Performance of such a system is commonly evaluated by demonstrating the correct and incorrect patterns classification. A confusion matrix is a table that is often used to describe the performance of a classification model (or “classifier”) on a set of test data for which the true values are known. It allows the visualization of the performance of an algorithm. A confusion matrix (Kohavi and Provost, 1998) contains information about actual and predicted classifications done by a classification system. Performance of such systems is commonly evaluated using the data in the matrix. The following table shows the confusion matrix for a two class classifier. It allows easy identification of confusion between classes e.g. one class is commonly mislabeled as the other. Most performance measures are computed from the confusion matrix. The entries in the confusion matrix have the following meaning in the context of our study: TN is the number of correct predictions that an instance is negative, FP is the number of incorrect predictions…

How to Implement ID3 Algorithm using Python

Introduction ID3 decision tree algorithm is the first of a series of algorithms created by Ross Quinlan to generate decision trees. Decision Tree is one of the most powerful and popular algorithm. Decision-tree algorithm falls under the category of supervised learning algorithms. It works for both continuous as well as categorical output variables. ID3 is a classification algorithm which for a given set of attributes and class labels, generates the model/decision tree that categorizes a given input to a specific class label ​\( C_k [C_1 C_2 C_3,…C_k]. \)​. The algorithm follows a greedy approach by selecting a best attribute that yields maximum information gain ​\( (IG) \)​or minimum entropy ​\( (H). \)​. The algorithm then splits the data-set ​\( (S) \)​recursively upon other unused attributes until it reaches the stop criteria (no further attributes to split). The non-terminal nodes in the decision tree represents the selected attribute upon which the split occurs and the terminal nodes represent the class labels. ID3 Characteristics ID3 does not guarantee an optimal solution; it can get stuck in local optimums It uses a greedy approach by selecting the best attribute to split the dataset on each iteration (one improvement that can be made on the algorithm can be to use backtracking during…

How to Implement ID3 Decision Tree Algorithm using JAVA

The development of Information technology has generated large amount of databases and huge data in various areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this precious data for further decision making. Decision tree is powerful and popular tool for classification and prediction. Decision trees represent rules. A decision tree is predictive model that, as its name implies, can be viewed as a tree. Specifically each branch of the tree is a classification question and the leaves of the tree are partitions of the dataset with their classification. Decision tree is a classifier in the form of a tree structure, where each node is either: A leaf node- indicates the value of the target attribute(class) of examples, or A decision node- specifies some test to be carried out on a single attribute- value, with one branch and sub-tree for each possible outcome of the test. ID3 algorithm is primarily used for decision making. ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm invented by Ross Quinlan is used to generate a decision tree from a dataset. There are different implementations given for Decision Trees. Major ones are ID3: Iternative Dichotomizer was the very first implementation…

What is Secure Socket layer (SSL) and How it Secure the Network

The boom of internet, web technologies bring the whole world under a single roof. Transferring information through e-ways leads security to be an important aspect to deal with. In recent years, there has been tremendous development in Internet. Right from retrieving information about any subject, you can use Internet for many purposes. But when two parties like client and a server are communicating over the Internet. Secure Socket layer (SSL) is vital to Web security. It provides a strong sense of confidentiality, message integrity, and server authentication to users. Overview of SSL SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer protocol developed by Netscape and is the standard Internet protocol for secure communications. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard security protocol for establishing an encrypted link between a server and a web browser. This link ensures that all data exchanged between the browser and the server remains secure. SSL allows your website and your visitor’s browser to transmit private, sensitive information without the worry of eavesdropping, web forgery, and data tampering. The main role of Secure Socket layer (SSL) is to provide security for Web traffic. Security includes confidentiality, message integrity, and authentication. SSL achieves these elements of security through the…

Ram Navmi: The Holy Festival of Hinduism
Culture , History , Travel and Destinations / March 25, 2018

In incarnation of God, an ideal man, dutiful son and just king: these are just a few ways to describe Lord Rama, an exemplar of honor, reverence, self-control and duty. He fought battles, became king, married a Goddess, traveled far and befriended exotic beings who were steadfast in their loyalty and courage. Rama Navami is the celebration of His birthday, when Hindus honor and remember Him with devotional singing, dramatic performance and non-stop recitation of His remarkable life story, the Ramayana. Rama Navami is the day on which Lord Rama, the seventh incarnation of Lord Vishnu, incarnated in human form in the land of Ayodhya. He is the ardha ansh of Vishnu or has half the divinitive qualities of Lord Vishnu. The word “Rama” literally means one who is divinely blissful and who gives joy to others, and one in whom the sages rejoice. Ram Navami falls on the ninth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Chaitra (April/May) (8 days after Yugādi) and coincides with Vasant Navratri or Chait Durga Puja. Therefore in some regions, the festival is spread over nine days. This day, marking the birthday of Lord Rama, is also observed as the marriage day…

25 March : Hindi Acting Contributor Farooque Shaikh
History , Travel and Destinations / March 25, 2018

Farooque Shaikh was born in 25 March 1948 at Amroli near Surat in Gujarat. His father name is Mustafa Shaikh and Mother Farida. His father Mustafa Shaikh was a lawyer settled in Mumbai, whose family hailed from Hansot village (Bharuch district, Gujarat). Shaikh’s family were Zamindars (landowners), and he grew up in luxurious surroundings. Shaikh attended St. Mary’s School, Mumbai and then graduated from St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai. He then studied law at Siddharth College of Law, Mumbai. Shaikh came to acting after failing to relate to his profession in law. At St. Xavier’s College that Shaikh met with Roopa, his future wife. Both of them were active in theatre while at college and later they got married. They have two daughters, Shaaista and Sanaa. His younger daughter Sanaa works with the NGO United Way Mumbai. Career and Professional Life He was active in theatre, doing plays with IPTA and with well-known directors like Sagar Sarhadi. His first major film role was in the 1973 film Garam Hawa, where Farooque had a supporting role and the leading man was Balraj Sahni. He first gained popular recognition as a quiz master on radio, but it was his participation as an anchor…

What is Firewall in Networking

The range of network security is very broad. The security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of concern. Most of the valuable information resides on the network, making network an inevitable entity for survival. Security is optimized by lack of access; connectivity is optimized by complete access. Internet enabled organizations; wireless connectivity and roaming clientage have made network peripheries relatively transparent. With the rapid application and popularization of computer networks, the increase of difficult steps of enterprises and government information digitization, existing enterprise network system structure is increasingly complex. Complex network structure gives a lot of safety concerns; the need for network security is also in rapid increase of the nature of the unprecedented.  Overview of Firewall The rapid development of Internet has brought great convenience to people’s life, but at the same time, the Internet is faced with unprecedented threat. Therefore, how to use effective feasible method to make the network risk within an acceptable range is in the attention of more and more people get. Firewalls are network devices which enforce an organization’s security policy. Firewalls protect a trusted network from an untrusted network by filtering traffic according to a specified security policy. A diverse set…

What is Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
Networking , Technology & Science / March 23, 2018

As the number of users on the World Wide Web increases every day, its use in different areas is also growing. One of the most powerful aspects of the Web is that anybody who has Internet access can browse on the net. This enables sharing the information worldwide. As we traverse the vast frontier of the World Wide Web, we’ll come across documents that make we wonder, “How did they do this?” These documents could consist of, among other things, forms that ask for feedback or registration information, image maps that allow to click on various parts of the image, counters that display the number of users that accessed the document, and utilities that allow to search databases for particular information. In most cases, we’ll find that these effects were achieved using the Common Gateway Interface, a.k.a. CGI. Overview of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) One of the Internet’s worst-kept secrets is that CGI is amazingly simple. That is, it’s trivial in design, and anyone with an iota of programming experience can write rudimentary scripts that work. It’s only when your needs are more demanding that you have to master the more complex workings of the Web. In a way, CGI is easy…

23 march : Shaheed-E-Azam Bhagat Singh
History , Travel and Destinations / March 23, 2018

Today is 23 march and it is also known as saheed divash of the Bhagat Singh, RajGuru and sukhdev. India will never forget their sacrifice. By this article we Remembering Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev on the day of their martyrdom. India will never forget their courage & sacrifice. On 17th March, a telegram was sent to Home Dept preponing the execution date to 23rd March, and was hanged to death at 7.30pm on 23rd March 1931. The execution was a great blow to the sentiments of Indians who in turn were deeply moved and held demonstrations all over the country. There were many who blamed Mahatma Gandhi for not saving Bhagat Singh and held hartals in protest against the Mahatma. Every year, 23rd March is observed as Martyrs’ Day in honor of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev. A salute to our martyrs for giving up their lives during freedom struggle so that subsequent generations could live in peace & prosperity. Background British Govt implemented an act to suppress freedom struggle, it gave the British Police a freedom to arrests anyone without any permissions. In this context Bhagat Singh and his friends carried out a plan to use low intensity…

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