What is Web service Discovery Language in web Services
Technology & Science / February 28, 2018

Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a format for describing a Web Services interface. WSDL describes a web service at both an abstract and a concrete level. At the abstract level, the web service is described by the messages it sends and receives. Typically an XML Schema is used for this. At the concrete level, the web service’s transport and wire format for one or more interfaces are described. Overview of Web Services Description Language WSDL is an XML-based format for describing Web services. Clients wishing to access a Web service can read and interpret its WSDL file to learn about the location of the service and its available operations. In this way, the WSDL definition acts as the initial Web service interface, providing clients with all the information they need to interact with the service in a standards-based way. Through the WSDL, a Web services client learns where a service can be accessed, what operations the service performs, the communication protocols the service supports, and the correct format for sending messages to the service. A WSDL file is an XML document that describes a Web service using six main elements: The WSDL document that describes a Web service acts as…

What is Simple Object Access Protocol in Web Services
Technology & Science / February 27, 2018

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is the messaging protocol for web services. It is used to encode the information in the request and response messages. A SOAP message is operating system independent and it is a way for one program to communicate with other programs independently to the operating systems of the other programs. The SOAP messaging framework consists of four parts, the SOAP processing model, the SOAP extensibility model, the SOAP protocol binding framework, and the SOAP message construct. The processing model defines “the rules for processing a SOAP message”. Overview of Simple Object Access Protocol SOAP supports different styles of information exchanged. It supports a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) style, which allows a request- response processing. And it also supports message oriented information exchange. This is good if you like to exchange business documents or other types of documents where the sender may not expect to get a response immediately. SOAP also have the following features: Protocol independence Language independence Platform and operating system independence Simple and extensible SOAP is an XML-based protocol from the W3C for exchanging data over HTTP. It provides a simple, standards-based method for sending XML messages between applications. Web services use SOAP to send…

What is Cluster Computing
Technology & Science / February 24, 2018

Very often applications need more computing power than a sequential computer can provide. One way of overcoming this limitation is to improve the operating speed of processors and other components so that they can offer the power required by computationally intensive applications. Cluster computing is an increasingly popular high performance computing solution. Cluster computing is not a new area of computing. It is, however, evident that there is a growing interest in its usage in all areas where applications have traditionally used parallel or distributed computing platforms. The mounting interest has been fueled in part by the availability of powerful microprocessors and high-speed networks as off-the-shelf commodity components as well as in part by the rapidly maturing software components available to support high performance and high availability applications. Overview of Cluster Computing Cluster computing is best characterized as the integration of a number of off-the-shelf commodity computers and resources integrated through hardware, networks, and software to behave as a single computer. Initially, the terms cluster computing and high performance computing were viewed as one and the same. However, the technologies available today have redefined the term cluster computing to extend beyond parallel computing to incorporate load-balancing clusters (for example, web…

What is Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
Networking , Technology & Science / February 23, 2018

Today is the era of information technology. Nowadays online shopping increase in market, use of E-payment gives more important benefits to merchants as well as customers. All online transactions must pass through a Payment Gateway to be processed. In effect, Payment Gateways act as a bridge between the merchant’s website and the financial institutions that process the transaction. Nowadays the payment approaches via the internet and the network has been growing at a furious pace. In this way, the variety of the electronic payment systems consists of a numerous types to achieve a strong level of the security. Electronic payment is the very important step of the electronic business system, and its security must be ensured. Overview of Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) The Secure Electronic Transaction protocol also known as SET is a method for providing secure credit card transactions on the Internet. The SET protocol is designed to operate both in real time, as on the World Wide Web, and in a store-and-forward environment, such as e-mail. Furthermore, as an open standard, SET is designed to allow consumers, merchants, and banking software companies to independently develop software for their respective clienteles and to have them interoperate successfully. However, in…

What is Password Authentication protocol (PAP)
Technology & Science , Web Security / February 22, 2018

In many systems, the user authentication is widely applied and discussed in security services. Password authentication, which is widely used for authenticated method, also is important protocol by requiring a username and password before being allowed access to resources. In an internet environment, a remote user has to obtain the access right from a server before doing any job. The procedure of obtaining access right is called a user authentication protocol. User authentication via user memorable password provides convenience without needing any auxiliary devices, such as smart card. It is very common that a server in a network of resources is used to provide controlled access to the network or to applications residing within the network. Therefore, it is necessary for the server to authenticate the client via username and password. Overview of Password Authentication protocol Password authentication is one of the simplest and the most convenient authentication mechanisms to deal with secret data over insecure networks. It is more frequently required in areas such as computer networks, wireless networks, remote login systems, operation systems, and database management systems. To access resources at remote systems, users should have proper access rights. One of the simplest and most convenient security mechanisms is…

What is Hash based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) in Network Security
Technology & Science / February 21, 2018

Today the Internet has virtually become the way of doing business as it offers a powerful ubiquitous medium of commerce and enables greater connectivity of disparate groups throughout the world. However this medium has its inherent risks. Loss of privacy, loss of data integrity, identify spoofing and denial of service are some of the major threats in the Internet. Two parties communicating across an insecure channel need a method by which any attempt to modify the information sent by one to the other, or fake its origin, is detected. Most commonly such a mechanism is based on a shared key between the parties, and in this setting is usually called a MAC, or Message Authentication Code. Overview of Hash based Message Authentication Code Providing a way to check the integrity of information transmitted over or stored in an unreliable medium is a prime necessity in the world of open computing and communications. Mechanisms that provide such integrity checks based on a secret key are usually called message authentication codes (MACs). Typically, message authentication codes are used between two parties that share a secret key in order to authenticate information transmitted between these parties. This standard defines a MAC that uses…

What is Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)
Neural Network , Technology & Science / February 20, 2018

Neural networks are powerful learning models that achieve state-of-the-art results in a wide range of supervised and unsupervised machine learning tasks. They are suited especially well for machine perception tasks, where the raw underlying features are not individually interpretable. The use of recurrent neural networks are often related to deep learning and the use of sequences to evolve models that simulate the neural activity in the human brain. Overview of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) The fundamental feature of a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is that the network contains at least one feed-back connection, so the activations can flow round in a loop. That enables the networks to do temporal processing and learn sequences, e.g., perform sequence recognition/reproduction or temporal association/prediction. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are connectionist models with the ability to selectively pass information across sequence steps, while processing sequential data one element at a time. Thus they can model input and/or output consisting of sequences of elements that are not independent. Further, recurrent neural networks can simultaneously model sequential and time dependencies on multiple scales. Figure 1: Recurrent Neural Network In other words, the RNN will be a function with inputs​\( x_t \)​  (input vector) and previous state ​\( h_(t-1)…

What is Texture Analysis in Image Processing
Image Processing , Technology & Science / February 18, 2018

In many machine vision and image processing algorithms, simplifying assumptions are made about the uniformity of intensities in local image regions. However, images of real objects often do not exhibit regions of uniform intensities. Extraction of effective features of objects is an important area of research in the intelligent processing of image data. Texture analysis is one of the fundamental aspects of human vision by which we discriminate between surfaces and objects. In a similar manner, computer vision can take advantage of the cues provided by surface texture to distinguish and recognize objects. In computer vision, texture analysis may be used alone or in combination with other sensed features (e.g. color, shape, or motion) to perform the task of recognition. Overview of Texture Analysis Texture analysis refers to the characterization of regions in an image by their texture content. Texture analysis attempts to quantify intuitive qualities described by terms such as rough, smooth, silky, or bumpy as a function of the spatial variation in pixel intensities. In this sense, the roughness or bumpiness refers to variations in the intensity values, or gray levels. Texture analysis is used in various applications, including remote sensing, automated inspection, and medical image processing. Texture analysis…

What is Bit Plane Slicing in Image processing
Image Processing / February 17, 2018

Bit plane slicing is well known technique used in Image processing. In image compression Bit plane slicing is used. Bit plane slicing is the conversion of image into multilevel binary image. These binary images are then compressed using different algorithm. With this technique, the valid bits from gray scale images can be separated, and it will be useful for processing these data in very less time complexity. Digitally, an image is represented in terms of pixels. These pixels can be expressed further in terms of bits. Separating a digital image into its bit-planes is useful for analyzing the relative importance played by each bit of image, a process aids in determining the adequacy of the no. of bits used to quantize each pixel. This type of decomposition is useful for image compression. This term of bit-plane extraction for an 8 bit image, it is not difficult to show that the (binary) image for bit-plane 7 can be obtained by processing input image with a thresholding gray-level transformation function. Overview of Bit Plane Slicing Instead of highlighting gray level images, highlighting the contribution made to total image appearance by specific bits might be desired. Suppose that each pixel in an image is…

Top 5 Most Haunted Places in India
History / February 16, 2018

Ghosts are everywhere. Many people are afraid of ghosts, but fear comes from a simple lack of understanding something. If you believe in life, you must believe in death. If you believe in God, you must believe in Ghost. If you believe in the alive, you must believe in the dead. Everybody has heard a real-life story or two about some of the scariest places in India. Some people act brave, but the fact remains that a few strange stories are scary, like actually spooky. Blame it on circumstances, but spine-chilling accounts confirm the presence of ghosts and spirits, specifically when they come from locals India is often considered as a land of undiscovered mystery. For centuries, travelers from around the world who have made their journey to India have been fascinated by the mystical energy that surrounds the country. From religious practices to rituals that are quintessentially Indian, these traits have made India a popular tourist destination. Therefore, when it comes to listing the most haunted places in India, there is not better country to start with. These abandoned places in India have become places of interest for those who are fascinated by the supernatural. For those who are too afraid…

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