Introduction of Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is the relationship between computers and human language. More specifically, natural language processing is the computer understanding, analysis, manipulation, and/or generation of natural language. Will a computer program ever be able to convert a piece of English text into a programmer friendly data structure that describes the meaning of the natural language text? Unfortunately, no consensus has emerged about the form or the existence of such a data structure. Until such fundamental Artificial Intelligence problems are resolved, computer scientists must settle for the reduced objective of extracting simpler representations that describe limited aspects of the textual information. Overview Natural Language processing Natural language processing (NLP) can be defined as the automatic (or semi-automatic) processing of human language. The term ‘NLP’ is sometimes used rather more narrowly than that, often excluding information retrieval and sometimes even excluding machine translation. NLP is sometimes contrasted with ‘computational linguistics’, with NLP being thought of as more applied. Nowadays, alternative terms are often preferred, like ‘Language Technology’ or ‘Language Engineering’. Language is often used in contrast with speech (e.g., Speech and Language Technology). But I’m going to simply refer to NLP and use the term broadly. NLP is essentially multidisciplinary: it is…

Outlier Detection in Data Mining

Outlier detection is a primary step in many data-mining applications. In many data analysis tasks a large number of variables are being recorded or sampled. One of the first steps towards obtaining a coherent analysis is the detection of outlaying observations. Although outliers are often considered as an error or noise, they may carry important information. Detected outliers are candidates for aberrant data that may otherwise adversely lead to model misspecification, biased parameter estimation and incorrect results. It is therefore important to identify them prior to modeling and analysis. Outlier Detection Overview Outlier Detection is an algorithmic feature that allows you to detect when some members of a group are behaving strangely compared to the others. Outlier detection is an important research problem in data mining that aims to find objects that are considerably dissimilar, exceptional and inconsistent with respect to the majority of the data in an input database. Outliers are extreme values that deviate from other observations on data; they may indicate variability in a measurement, experimental errors or a novelty. An outlier is an observation (or measurement) that is different with respect to the other values contained in a given dataset. Outliers can be due to several…

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