Privacy Preserving Data Mining

Privacy is a matter of individual perception, an infallible and universal solution to this dichotomy is infeasible. The common term of privacy in the general, limits the information that is leaked by the distributed computation to be the information that can be learned from the designated output of the computation. The current state-of-the-art paradigm for privacy-preserving data mining is differential privacy, which allows un-trusted parties to access private data through aggregate queries. Privacy Preserving Data Mining : Overview The technology that converts clear text into a non-human readable form is called data anonymization. In recent years data anonymization technique for privacy-preserving data publishing of micro-data has received a lot of attention. Micro-data contains information about an individual entity, such as a person, a household or an organization. In each record a number of attributes can be categorized as i) Identifiers that can uniquely identify an individual, such as Name or Social Security Number ii) some attributes may be Sensitive Attributes (SAs) such as disease and salary and iii) some attributes are Quasi-Identifiers (QI) such as zip code, age, and sex which may be from publicly available database, whose values, when taken together, can potentially identify an individual. Data anonymization enables the transfer…

Virtual Machine Scheduling in Cloud

Virtualization plays an important role in providing resources to the users efficiently in cloud environment. Virtualization can be done in various ways like server virtualization, memory virtualization, storage virtualization, etc. For efficiently achieving virtualization, virtual machines (VM) are designed. Although virtual machine (VM) migration has been used to avoid conflicts on traditional system resources like CPU and memory, micro-architectural resources such as shared caches, memory controllers, and non-uniform memory access (NUMA) affinity, have only relied on intra-system scheduling to reduce contentions on them. Virtual Machine Scheduling: Overview In cloud systems based on virtualization, virtual machines (VM) share physical resources. Although resource sharing can improve the overall utilization of limited resources, contentions on the resources often lead to significant performance degradation. To mitigate the effect of such contentions, cloud systems use dynamic rescheduling of VMs with live migration technique [23], changing the placement of running VMs. However, such VM migration has been used to resolve conflicts or balance load on traditional allocatable system resources such as CPUs, memory, and I/O sub-systems. VM migration can be triggered by monitoring the usages of these resources for VMs in a cloud system. In the meantime, the advent of multi-cores has enabled the sharing of…

Face Recognition

Information and Communication Technologies are increasingly entering in all aspects of our life and in all sectors, opening a world of unprecedented scenarios where people interact with electronic devices embedded in environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of users. Indeed, since the first examples of “intelligent” buildings featuring computer aided security and fire safety systems, the request for more sophisticated services, provided according to each user’s specific needs has characterized the new tendencies within demotic research. With data and information accumulating in abundance, there is a crucial need for high security. Biometrics has now received more attention. Face biometrics, useful for a person’s authentication is a simple and non-intrusive method that recognizes face in complex multidimensional visual model and develops a computational model for it. Face Recognition Significance Face recognition is a biometric technique used for surveillance purposes such as search for wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. The term face recognition refers to identifying, by computational algorithms, an unknown face image. This operation can be done by comparing the unknown face with the faces stored in database. Face recognition has three stages a) face location detection b) feature extraction c) facial image classification. Face recognition…

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET)
Networking , Technology & Science / October 17, 2017

There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. VANETs comprise vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications based on wireless local area network technologies. vehicular ad hoc networks: Overview The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. There has been significant interest and progress in the field of vehicular ad hoc networks over the last several years. The growth of the increased number of vehicles are equipped with wireless transceivers to communicate with other vehicles to form a special class of wireless networks, known as vehicular ad hoc networks or VANETs. Rapid advances in wireless technologies provide opportunities to utilize these technologies in support of advanced vehicle safety applications. Figure 1 vehicular ad hoc networks In particular, the new Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) offers the potential to effectively support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside safety communications, which has become known as Vehicle Safety Communication (VSC) technologies. DSRC enables a new class of communication applications that will increase the overall safety and efficiency…

Digital Image Processing
Image Processing , Technology & Science / October 16, 2017

Digital image processing is concerned primarily with extracting useful information from images. Ideally, this is done by computers, with little or no human intervention. Image processing algorithms may be placed at three levels. At the lowest level are those techniques which deal directly with the raw, possibly noisy pixel values, with de-noising and edge detection being good examples. Digital image processing : Definition Digital image processing is the manipulation of the numeric data of the digital image for enhancing it to make it suitable for the further processing according to the specific application needs. Today, Image Processing systems are very popular due to easy availability of powerful computers, large size memory devices, graphics software etc. By doing image processing, corrupted pictures can be enhanced, medical images clarified, and satellite photographs improved. Image Processing is a technique to enhance raw images received from cameras/sensors placed on satellites, space and aircrafts or pictures taken in normal day-to-day life for various applications. A digital image is an array of real numbers represented by a finite number of bits. Basic operation of image processing can be shown with the help of figure 1. Figure 1: Basic Operations While acquiring the image from the source…

What is Cryptography

Cryptography is an indispensable tool used to protect information in computing systems. It is used everywhere and by billions of people worldwide on a daily basis. It is used to protect data at rest and data in motion. Cryptographic systems are an integral part of standard protocols, most notably the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, making it relatively easy to incorporate strong encryption into a wide range of applications. While extremely useful, cryptography is also highly brittle. The most secure cryptographic system can be rendered completely insecure by a single specification or programming error. No amount of unit testing will uncover security vulnerability in a cryptosystem. Cryptography Overview The word cryptography comes from the Greek words κρυπτο (hidden or secret) and γραφη (writing). Oddly enough, cryptography is the art of secret writing. More generally, people think of cryptography as the art of mangling information into apparent unintelligibility in a manner allowing a secret method of unmangling. The basic service provided by cryptography is the ability to send information between participants in a way that prevents others from reading it. This kind of cryptography can provide other services, such as Integrity checking—reassuring the recipient of a message that the message has…

Cloud Computing Introduction

Internet has been a driving force towards the various technologies that have been developed. Arguably, one of the most discussed among all of these is Cloud Computing. Over the last few years, cloud computing paradigm has witnessed an enormous shift towards its adoption and it has become a trend in the information technology space as it promises significant cost reductions and new business potential to its users and providers. This section provides the cloud computing and their basic overview about the different techniques that are utilized for further data sharing over cloud: Cloud Computing: Introduction Cloud computing is a computing paradigm, where a large pool of systems are connected in private or public networks, to provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for application, data and file storage. With the advent of this technology, the cost of computation, application hosting, content storage and delivery is reduced significantly. Cloud computing is a practical approach to experience direct cost benefits and it has the potential to transform a data center from a capital-intensive set up to a variable priced environment. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of reusability of IT capabilities. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to…

Vampire Attack in Wireless Sensor Network
Networking , Technology & Science / October 11, 2017

Introduction of Vampire Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks A new class of resource depletion attack has been discovered which permanently disable network by draining energy of network nodes called “Vampire Attack”. Vampire attacks are not affecting any specific protocol. Vampire attack causes composition and flooding of messages more similar to that generated by an honest node and drains the battery life from network nodes. Basically vampire attack is a variant of DDOS attacks, which performs resource consumption on neighbor nodes. Therefore, during the vampire attack targeted packets are modified for preparing long routes or misguiding the packets. In addition of that the malicious nodes are making frequent connectivity of the entire neighbor nodes in the network using false control message exchange. Due to these neighbor nodes replies the false request for connectivity and draining energy rapidly. Therefore, in order to detect and prevent the malicious nodes in the network a new kind of scheme is required which monitor the network node’s activity and provide the decision for malicious behaving nodes. Vampire attacks are not protocol-specific, in that they do not rely on design properties or implementation faults of particular routing protocols, but rather exploit general properties of protocol classes such as…

Load Balancing in Distributed System

A serious difficulty in concurrent programming of a distributed system is how to deal with scheduling and load balancing of such a system which may consist of heterogeneous computers. Load balancing comes under the area of resource management. In this section we describe the detail overview of the load balancing is a distributed environment in the scheduling perspectives. Load Balancing Overview With the great advancements in computer technology and the availability of many distributed systems, the problem of load balancing in distributed systems has gained a higher attention and importance. A dynamic load balancing algorithm assumes no a priori knowledge about job behavior or the global state of the system, i.e., load balancing decisions is solely based on the current status of the system. The development of an effective dynamic load balancing algorithm involves many important issues: load estimation, load levels comparison, performance indices, system stability, amount of information exchanged among nodes, job resource requirements estimation, job’s selection for transfer, remote nodes selection, and more. Outstanding progress in computer technology has lead to the rise of the demand of high speed processing and the need of high scalability, availability and rapid response. This resulted in use of parallel and distributed…

Wireless Mesh Network (WMN)
Networking , Technology & Science / October 9, 2017

Wireless Mesh Network: Introduction Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a promising wireless technology for several emerging and commercially interesting applications, e.g., broadband home networking, community and neighborhood networks, coordinated network management, intelligent transportation systems. It is gaining significant attention as a possible way for Internet service providers (ISPs) and other end users to establish robust and reliable wireless broadband service access at a reasonable cost. figure 1 contains an example of wireless mesh network. figure 1 example wireless mesh network Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is believed to be a highly promising technology and will play an increasingly important role in future generation wireless mobile networks. WMN is characterized by dynamic self-organization, self-configuration and self-healing to enable quick deployment, easy maintenance, low cost, high scalability and reliable services, as well as enhancing network capacity, connectivity and resilience. Wireless mesh network (WMN) is a radical network form of the ever evolving wireless networks that marks the divergence from the traditional centralized wireless systems such as cellular networks and wireless local area networks (LANs). Wireless Mesh Network: Definition A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a communications network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is also a form of…

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