Wireless Network Routing Protocol
Networking , Technology & Science / October 23, 2017

Due to the severe energy constraints of large number of densely deployed sensor nodes, it requires a suite of network protocols to implement various network control and management functions such as synchronization, node localization, and network security. A routing protocol is a set of rules used by routers to determine the most appropriate paths into which they should forward packets towards their intended destinations. Routing Protocol Overview A routing protocol is considered adaptive if certain system parameters can be controlled in order to adapt to current network conditions and available energy levels. Routing in wireless sensor networks differs from conventional routing in fixed networks in various ways. There is no infrastructure, wireless links are unreliable, sensor nodes may fail, and routing protocols have to meet strict energy saving requirements. Part of the job of the routing protocol is to specify how routers report changes and share information with the other routers in the network in order to update their routing tables, thereby allowing networks to dynamically adjust to changing conditions (e.g., changes in network topology and traffic patterns). Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an internetwork. During this process, at least one…

Self Organizing Map (SOM)

What is Self Organizing Map (SOM) A neural network is called a mapping network if it is able to compute some functional relationship between its input and its output. For example if the input to a network is the value of an angle and the output is the cosine of that angle, the network perform the mapping θ =cos (θ). For such a simple function, we do not need a Neural Network. However we might want to perform a complicated mapping where does not know how to describe the functional relationship in advance, but we do know of examples of the correct mapping. In this situation, Neural Network is applicable to discover its own algorithms which is extremely useful. Self Organizing Map: Overview The SOM algorithm is based on unsupervised, competitive learning. It provides a topology preserving mapping from the high dimensional space to map units. Map units, or neurons, usually form a two-dimensional lattice and thus the mapping is a mapping from high dimensional space onto a plane. The property of topology preserving means that the mapping preserves the relative distance between the points. Points that are near each other in the input space are mapped to nearby map…

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